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institutional norms as well. Illicit intercourse was often based on a common enthusiasm for narcotics and alcohol. In 1889, the warden of the Hanoi Civil Prison dis- covered that guards and prisoners were regularly sneaking away from hard-labor work sites together in order to “smoke opium in a den on the rue des Cartes.”23 In 1925, the warden of the Kien An Provincial Prison re- ported that a guard and a group of bootleggers he was escorting to the prison had “arrived, after an unusually long time, in a state of utter drunk- enness.”24 Similar episodes were cited regularly on

lose their jobs and become vagrants. They are then thrown into prison. Some people call them lazy, but I see them as victims of circumstance.19 Violations of state monopolies for opium, alcohol, and gambling were another category of frequently prosecuted offenses. While monopoly in- fractions (bootlegging and smuggling, for example) do not appear in an- nual trial statistics, the prevalence of such offenses may be discerned from scattered sources.20 It is tempting to assume that such infractions were statistically covered under the mysterious generic category “other

ability to recruit new officers, many of whom had criminal records. On Pendergast’s watch, cops received intentionally small paychecks, encouraging them to take bribes. Officers would often be hired simply because they had written a letter pledging loyalty to the Democratic machine. Beyond bootlegging, racketeering, and protecting fugitives, Lazia’s criminal- ity included likely blessing, and then, in a semi-official capacity, investigating, the so-called Union Station massacre, which killed four officers and one underworld acquaintance of Lazia’s. The imbroglio

is none other than the “Holton Gang.” The par- ents are unmarried and living in sin, only one of their kids is their own, and they have been recently imprisoned for bootlegging liquor and run- ning confi dence scams. What is more, at high noon on closing day, “when the Eugenic Family was giving a demonstration of perfect vigor, their youngest blossom had an epileptic fi t.”19 The 1930s witnessed more disputation. Sometimes this entailed eugenicists recanting previously held positions. For instance, Carl C. Brigham, who devised the prototype for today

Square). Rickard saw pro hockey as a potential attraction to fill dates in his new building when there wasn’t box- ing, wrestling, or the circus. Although he did not own the team (the co- owners were Montreal promoter Tom Duggan and New York bootlegger Big Bill Dwyer), Rickard was its public face. He devised all manner of gimmicks to draw crowds, from having celebrities like Babe Ruth drop the puck to painting the brownish ice a brilliant white. In the first season, the promoter was so impressed with turnout that he decided to buy his own hockey fran- chise. His

like IZansas, Connecticut, and Mississippi. Writing in the Saturday Evening Post, Will Rogers depicted California as an up- start-the symbol for a new Sunbelt culture. Rogers staged a mock de- bate between Florida and California to determine the greatest state in the Union; the conversation quickly turned to fruit. Florida says: "We are known for our Oranges." To which California responds: Why oranges, climate, Pickford, California-those four wonderful words can never be dissociated. I will admit there is a bootleg variety of orange that thrives up to the size of a

plant’s extensive perimeter. Hundreds of workers, arriving for the start of the 7:00 a.m. shift , either joined the picket lines or turned for home. Although some workers continued to enter the plant and the mill continued with some processes, production was largely shut down.7 Bethlehem’s response to the strike was much aided by the mayor of Johnstown, a megalomaniacal bootlegger named Daniel Shields who loathed the CIO. During the drive, Shields presided over a hearing concern- ing an organizer arrested for distributing the SWOC’s newspaper, Steel Labor

, bootlegged liquor, and the black sexuality on display on the 66 • B L A C K M E T R O P O L I S dance fl oor.15 Even by the early 1940s, decades aft er Chicago’s Black Metropolis had clearly established itself as the nation’s “melting pot” of jazz and blues, its performing and recording scene helping to catapult the likes of Louis Armstrong, Jelly Roll Morton, Bessie Smith, Joe “King” Oliver, Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, Ma Rainey, Ethel Waters, and Earl “Fatha” Hines to national prominence, a number of black community leaders were still unable to comfortably

–6. See also daily routines; resistance Runyon, Damon, 44 Russell, Bertrand, 328 Ruth, David E., 520 Ryan, 345–46 Rychner, Emil, 372–73 Sabin, 346 Saga magazine, 4 Sanders, Thomas J., 343 San Francisco: Alcatraz protested and criticized in, 57–58, 156, 275–76, 488n35; bootlegging in, 88; curiosity about Alcatraz in, 131–32; 1906 earthquake in, 56; news of battle of Alcatraz in, 247, 251; parole rules and concerns of, 67; releasee’s suicide in, 187–89; search for escapees in, 154– 55; transport to Alcatraz from, 75–76, 78; WWII fears in, 110 San Francisco Bay: bodies

. Everett veered off the Apache Trail and plunged into the backcountry of the Super- stition Mountains, the supposed location of the Lost Dutchman Mine, sought in vain by treasure hunters. I killed a rattlesnake, and forced the burros to descend steep mountains against their better judgment. With this mention of a slain rattlesnake, Everett began a litany of similar episodes. The urge to kill a venomous snake was not uncommon in the West in the pre-ecology era.* The youth arrived penniless at Roosevelt Lake around the first of Novem- ber. A bootlegger said he might