Everywhere War,” Geographic Imaginations 177, no. 3 (2011):
11. Michael Dillon and Julian Reid, The Liberal Way of War: Killing to
Make Life Live (New York: Routledge, 2009).
12. Cited in Samuel Weber, “Target of Opportunity: Networks, Netwar, and
Narratives,” Grey Room 15 (Spring 2014): 7.
13. Cited in Ulises Ali Mejias, Off the Network: Disrupting the DigitalWorld (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013), 92.
14. Alex Williams, “Escape Velocities,” E-Flux, no. 46 (June 2003), www.e
15. Steven Shaviro
traditionally associated with
symphonies and sonatas, and these will continue well into “the digital mu-
But that says nothing specifically about the place of instrumental art
music in a digitalworld— a more difficult question. Absolute music in West-
ern classical traditions might seem resolutely “waterproof” in the face of ris-
ing digital tides, since it is defined by authorship, genre, and construction—
identified according to principles of exclusion rather than inclusion.
Digital Mythologies / 125
Absolute music has long been held up as music
conversation about windows and what these studios
are doing. It doesn’t make any sense to most consumers, but the economics
make a lot of sense for the motion picture studios.
Along those lines, how do these changes affect the moratorium strategy
that worked so well in the past for Disney?
That’s a great question. At Disney we often discussed what the role of the
moratorium strategy should be in a digitalworld. If we weren’t making it
available, then the pirates would do it for us. I can’t say with any specifi c-
ity what is happening with the moratorium strategy
necessary to make it a really large business has come into
place. So it’s grown very rapidly. The marketplace is growing at a nice
double- digit percentage every year, but it’s still a relatively small part of
the business, and making this a bigger part of the business is one of our
If you look at tele vi sion, there is not a rental business, so we only have
a digital sell- through business.
Why is that? Why has the rental of tele vi sion been eliminated in some
In the digitalworld, there just hasn’t been a demand for it. There have been
the digitalworld. So you have these companies
that bought up everything. For the guilds it’s now a case of negotiating
with consolidated media empires that very cleverly cooperate.
Back in 1988, when the issues of cable and video residuals were fi rst boil-
ing over, why did the unions get such a bad deal?
Short of boring you with the whole history, I will bore you with just some
sort of anecdotal recollections of my own. The DVD formula, which was
the VHS formula, was really the creature of a series of bungles on the part
of the unions in 1984 by the
sphere of artistic action that allows art to sustain a high level of prestige and, at
another ideological level, to provide a repository of transcendental values in a
secularized and skeptical world. (Whether it can do either one in a digitalworld
is another question, for another time.) But the actors in this scenario are epithets,
not persons. You can’t “humanize” their stories no matter how hard you try. The
construction of their maturation or heroic creativity by the avoidance or defeat of
interlocutory bonds — of influence in its wider sense
Hassan, N., N. El-Ghorab, et al. 1994. HIV infection in renal dialysis patients
in Egypt. AIDS 8: 853.
Haykel, B. 2003. Revival and reform in Islam: The legacy of Muhammad al-
Shawkani. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Helmreich, S. 1998. Silicon second nature: Culturing artificial life in a digitalworld. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hirschkind, C. 2006. The ethical soundscape: Cassette sermons and Islamic
counterpublics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Hoffmaster, B., ed. 2001. Bioethics in social context. Philadelphia: Temple Uni-
recycling of Hollywood classics, and Internet short f i lmmaking—is
similarly articulated through densely interwoven discursive networks.
Along with the notion of social mediation, I have stressed the extensive
evaluative and interpretive dimensions of home film exhibition and recep-
tion. In home film cultures, these dimensions are most evident in relation
to technologies with digital affiliations, such as home theater and DVD. An
engagement with the digitalworld of cinema confers, to paraphrase Bour-
dieu, titles of cultural nobility on those viewers most immersed
click_online/8297237.stm; Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Greener and
Smarter: ICTs, the Environment and Climate Change (Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation
and Development, 2010), 19.
33. Entertainment & Leisure Software Publishers Association, Chicks and Joysticks: An Exploration of
Women and Gaming (London: Entertainment & Leisure Software Publishers Association, 2004); Depart-
ment for Children, Schools and Families and Department for Culture, Media and Sport, Safer Children in
a DigitalWorld: The Report
, Instagram posts, even art and museum exhibitions all serve
to make accessible and widen the reach of the symbolic versions of these
phenomena, while simultaneously increasing their prestige.
A materialist interpretation suggests that it is the world around us
that shapes and limits our possibilities; the place we are born into is
largely where we stay, without exercising considerable individual eff ort
to form and manage our own identities.25 In this context, the digitalworld is often presented as a democratizing force that has the power to
change the automatic