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Chapter VI The Anaheim Cooperative and the Sonoma Corporation BE T W E E N 1857 AND 1863, the policy of the state gov-ernment to encourage agriculture coincided with a ^ new development in commercial viticulture. The f attempt at cooperative wine growing in 1857 at Anaheim and the corporate experiment of 1863 at Sonoma indicated a new trend in commercial grape growing and wine making. The cooperative viticultural ventures of the 'eighties and 'nineties and the later corporate big busi- ness growth and organization of the wine industry were se- quels to

few "beaten paths to follow" distinguished the pre-1880 era from the post- 1880 one. By 1880 grape growing and wine making had achieved significance commercially as well as industrially, and Cali- fornia's leading agricultural industry was on the threshold of a new—the modern—era.4 The first generation of viti- culturists brought to California the choice viniferas of Eu- rope, the viticultural experience of the Old World, and trained American wine makers.6 The second generation was to end America's dependence upon Europe for vin ordinaire and to increase and

Mission grapes often spoiled because of their low acidity. The secularization of the missions occurred during the Mex- ican period in 1833 and thereafter their vineyards gradually deteriorated. Some of the vines at San Gabriel were preserved for a longer period of time, but the Mission period contributed little directly to the future of the grape industry except for the Mission variety of grapes and the angelica type of wine. How- ever, the Mission period was important because it introduced grape growing to the state and showed how widespread was the area

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university mail- box from an administrator. It said that a reporter was looking for me, and that this reporter “seemed to think that [I was] saying things that [I] probably [didn’t] want to say.” It’s important that this discussion about the basis for grape-growing paradigms takes place. Fine wine is inextricably tied up in culture and tradition. We bring our cultures and backgrounds into wine tasting, and we each have our own tasting experience; however, those need not (and indeed should not) drive our understanding of the grapevine. The mod- els of wine quality are

winegrowers that it also compromises wine qual- ity. Many winegrowers believe that grape quality is sacrifi ced when adopting cost-minimizing methods of vineyard technology such as mechanical harvesters and machine pruners. The cost of oak treatment can be signifi cantly reduced by maturing wine in a stainless steel vessel with oak staves or chips, but many winemakers believe that more costly maturation in oak barrels yields a wine of higher quality. These and 300 | Conclusion many other perceived trade-offs have a signifi cant infl uence on grape- growing and

GLOSSARY 265 ACIDIFICATION Wines deficient in acid have a flabby, flat structure. Acidification is the addition of natural acids (usually tartaric or citric) to fix this problem. ACID LEVEL The total acid content of the wine, usually measured in grams per liter. APPELLATION Informal term, borrowed from the French appellation, for a grape- growing area. In the United States, the legal term is “American Viticultural Area,” or AVA. An AVA must be approved by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) of the U.S. Department of the Treasury, a time

from the foreign varieties, Haraszthy now attempted to find a more suitable locality for an extensive vineyard. Early in 1857, before he resigned from the mint, he purchased the nucleus of his Buena Vista property at Sonoma. Several important vint- ners already had discovered that the soil and climate of this locality were ideal for grape growing and wine making. The Ohio journal Horticultural Review and Botanical Magazine, in an article published in 1854, credited this valley with some of the finest vineyards of northern California, and substanti- ated its

laws to define the functions of the board and the college of agricul- ture contributed materially to the final dissolution of the State Board of Viticultural Commissioners in 1894. The first task of the commissioners was to build a viti- cultural library. This was imperative, for there was a woeful lack of scientific knowledge in this field in California. The commission began by purchasing all the books, pamphlets, and monographs in English on wine making and grape growing;18 then it purchased all those in French, German, Italian, and Spanish. By 1887 the

ripening, pest resist- ance, adaptation to a locale's soil or climate, high yield, or some other special feature. The European grape was taken along (as seeds, cuttings or rooted plants) during exploration and colonization. It was brought to Mexico, Argentina, Chile, through Baja California to California, into Australia, and into South Africa. In these areas as well as in Eurasia the European grape was and is the primary grape used for making wine. The explorers and colonists encountered other grapes grow- ing wild in many parts of the world, especially the North

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-known but also important were the exploits of folks like Sam Brannan who set up camp near the hot springs in Calistoga, thinking that he would re-create the atmosphere around New York state’s Saratoga, and who, in 1860, realizing the potential for grape growing in the Napa Valley, would go to Europe, where he also arranged for thousands and thousands of noble grape vines to be sent back. At the same time, New Englanders other than Macondray began to import their prized grapes from home, and Zinfandel was prime among them—albeit as both table grape and wine grape