is none other than the “Holton Gang.” The par-
ents are unmarried and living in sin, only one of their kids is their own,
and they have been recently imprisoned for bootlegging liquor and run-
ning confi dence scams. What is more, at high noon on closing day,
“when the Eugenic Family was giving a demonstration of perfect vigor,
their youngest blossom had an epileptic fi t.”19
The 1930s witnessed more disputation. Sometimes this entailed
eugenicists recanting previously held positions. For instance, Carl C.
Brigham, who devised the prototype for today
plant’s extensive perimeter. Hundreds of workers, arriving for the start
of the 7:00 a.m. shift , either joined the picket lines or turned for home.
Although some workers continued to enter the plant and the mill continued
with some processes, production was largely shut down.7
Bethlehem’s response to the strike was much aided by the mayor of
Johnstown, a megalomaniacal bootlegger named Daniel Shields who
loathed the CIO. During the drive, Shields presided over a hearing concern-
ing an organizer arrested for distributing the SWOC’s newspaper, Steel
Square). Rickard saw pro hockey as a
potential attraction to fill dates in his new building when there wasn’t box-
ing, wrestling, or the circus. Although he did not own the team (the co-
owners were Montreal promoter Tom Duggan and New York bootlegger Big
Bill Dwyer), Rickard was its public face. He devised all manner of gimmicks
to draw crowds, from having celebrities like Babe Ruth drop the puck to
painting the brownish ice a brilliant white. In the first season, the promoter
was so impressed with turnout that he decided to buy his own hockey fran-
like IZansas, Connecticut, and Mississippi. Writing
in the Saturday Evening Post, Will Rogers depicted California as an up-
start-the symbol for a new Sunbelt culture. Rogers staged a mock de-
bate between Florida and California to determine the greatest state in
the Union; the conversation quickly turned to fruit. Florida says: "We are
known for our Oranges." To which California responds:
Why oranges, climate, Pickford, California-those four wonderful words
can never be dissociated. I will admit there is a bootleg variety of orange
that thrives up to the size of a
& Commentary (New York:
Applause Books, 1998), pp. 442–43.
3 3 4 / N O T E S T O PA G E S 1 5 8 – 1 5 9
101. Bell hooks, Bone Black: Memories of Girlhood (New York: Owl Books,
1996), p. 32. I am grateful to Tania Modleski for alerting me to this reference.
102. Ibid., p. 33.
103. Ellen Melinkoff, An Offbeat Social History of Women’s Clothing, 1950
to 1980 (New York: William Morrow, 1984), pp. 33, 34–39, 85.
104. Jay Gertzman, Bootleggers and Smuthounds: The Trade in Erotica,
1920–1940 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999), pp. 8–10, 65,
67, 86, 189. See
, the Overland
had relatively more luxurious associations. By playing with the symbolic sys-
tems attached to the two models, the driver himself seems transformed in the
moonlight from a worn-down laborer to a playboy bootlegger. The singer
proudly describes flirting with women, smoking marijuana, and evading U.S.
custom’s officers while smuggling liquor across the border. The mobility ena-
bled by his vehicle is a fitting metaphor for the intersections between Mexican
and American life, particularly as the increasing ease of automobility blurred
they agreed to
take a license and pay fees going forward. Only about a third of Ascap’s
gross income was being distributed to members in the early 1920s.
A bootlegging operation so benign, so smalltime, wouldn’t have
attracted the Prohibition Bureau’s attention. Nonetheless, Ascap soon
found itself under serious scrutiny and fighting for its survival in all
three branches of the national government.
The Bureau of Navigation, under the purview of Secretary of Commerce
Herbert Hoover, granted the first thirty-one radio broadcast licenses in
course, he got all the credit.
Another woman warned against adopting the local class snobberies.
Don't ignore the bootlegger. He talks to a lot of people. Put him on
your committee. A man from a rural area questioned the need for
developing a personal relationship with the people you were trying to
reach. Rural people get very few letters so they take those they do get
very seriously. He had always gotten a good response by organizing
his campaigns around written appeals.
The young people were admonished against bickering with other
organizations. Push your program
, and a
Point of View (Franklin, TN: Legacy Communications, 1995); Lucas Hilderbrand,
Inherent Vice: Bootleg Histories of Videotape and Copyright (Durham, NC: Duke
University Press, 2009), 121–122.
54. On the Nixon administration’s relationship to the news media, see Tim
Kiska, “Nixon and the Media,” in Blackwell Companions to American History: A
Companion to Richard M. Nixon, ed. Melvin Small (Oxford: Blackwell, 2011),
292–310; Nicholas Johnson, “Government by Television: A Case Study, Perspec-
tives, and Proposals,” Journal of Aesthetic Education 5 (July 1971
dropped from $2.45 to $.76 per barrel. Retail gasoline
prices slid along with crude oil prices. At the beginning of 1923, Stan-
dard Oil gasoline retailed at $.22 per gallon. By September the price had
fallen to $.13. Small retailers sold “bootleg” gasoline at $.10 per gallon,
with prices reportedly as low as $.06.
Although these falling prices were the obvious outcome of the petroleum
property regime, public officials and many within the oil industry
responded with alarm. They feared industrial disarray due to overcapacity,
the shutting down of wells and firing of