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the death penalty, the transi- tion to life without parole nationwide will likely be irreversible, especially if humonetarian logic leads states to repurpose death rows and restructure their array of prisons. I expect that cost-based legalization of substances in general, and marijuana in particular, will also be an irreversible trend. Here it is possible to rely on a histori- cal example. Th e repeal of Prohibition, largely possible because of arguments of enforcement costs, creation of an underground economy, and the potential of rev- enue enhancement via

Century Magazine. He found that while western “wets,” those who favored repeal of Prohibition, appeared to have great infl uence, the dry forces could count on getting more people to vote to keep Prohibition going. His descriptions here, especially those of the Pacifi c coast and Montana, hint at the complexity of the issue. What western groups would you expect to be vociferous wets? Which would you expect to be dry? Why do you think the wets were unable to muster strength at the ballot box, despite their outspokenness? How does Milton’s account of Prohibition

with Kathleen Rooney.” Brooklyn Rail, February 5. /books/the-brutality-of-believing-mattilda-bernstein-sycamore-in-conversation -with-kathleen-rooney. Root, Grace C. 1934. Women and Repeal. New York: Harper & Brothers. Rose, Kenneth D. 1997. American Women and the Repeal of Prohibition. New York: New York University Press. Ruiz, Jason. 2008. “The Violence of Assimilation: An Interview with Mattilda aka Matt Bernstein Sycamore.” Radical History Review 100: 236–47. Ryan, Caitlin, and Judith Bradford. 1999. “Conducting the National

article mentioned that nearly half a billion dollars of taxes would be collected within a year from the beer industry, and it estimated that, in New York state alone, the Cullen-Harrison Act opened the door for forty thousand jobs, including “19,000 directly in the breweries, 221,000 in cooperage, lithogra- phy, bottle making, [and] lumbering.”6 Th ese numbers did not even refl ect the immediate growth of the hotel and restaurants industries. It made sense, then, that as the year progressed, Roosevelt promoted broader repeal of Prohibition, citing economic

134 the willamette valley hop industry faced its greatest crisis in the mid–twentieth century. Aft er an extended period of success for hop growers that included global praise and one of the state’s most vibrant folk occasions, downy mildew threatened to take it all away. While growers increased acreage upon the repeal of Prohibition, the quality of the crops slowly began to deteriorate along with reduced yields. Adding further uncer- tainty were the various marketing agreements that limited farmers’ abilities to expand production or enter into the business

Pacifi c Northwest to attend meetings with the hop growers and brewers who were intently interested in the developments in Corvallis. Additionally, the two off ered radio programs, published scientifi c papers, and contributed popular articles to the Pacifi c Hop Grower, all of which kept hundreds of regional farmers and brewing-industry professionals in the loop and abreast of the hop research agenda at the experiment station.13 Because the hop-breeding program emerged around the same time as the repeal of Prohibition and the revival of American brewing, the

“Tokay” no one can now say: neither the grape from which Tokay is made nor any wine resembling Tokay is known in California. The name was much used after the repeal of Prohibition for a sweet fortified wine, but is not now, though it is still legally allowed as a generic name. 48. Peninou and Unzelman, California Wine Association, p. 147. 49. A sherry house is a building whose interior may be heated to a high tempera- ture in order to “bake” the fortified wine that is to be called sherry. This method is borrowed from Madeira rather than from the Sherry region of

puritanism advocated by Ford, as well as related social measures meant to rationalize the working class into the regimented and disciplined work force required by Taylorized industry, did not become a prototype for new socio- political relations. In fact, with the repeal of prohibition, the liberalization of other repressive measures, and the growth of the culture industry, the working class could be consumerized through the rise of the narcissistic personality,97 on the one hand, and, on the 95. Gramsci, Prison Notebooks, p. 318. The only difference between the

Cubans or other Latin Americans in the absence of suitable and will- ing local whites” (Craton and Saunders 1998, 245). I will return to explore these issues and trends in much greater detail in chapter 3. Th e bust following the repeal of Prohibition was sustained and intense, a severe economic depression (matched worldwide, in this case) lasting from 1933 until the beginning of World War II, aft er which tourism fi nally came to occupy the central place in the Bahamian economy toward which it had been moving since the late nineteenth century. Th e years between

marijuana de- bate concerns the public’s right to weigh in on the social status of a con- troversial drug. The repeal of Prohibition in 1933 is, of course, the great precedent in this regard. Propositions 215 and 200 represented more re- fined judgments, in that they aimed at serving a medically needy minor- ity rather than a pleasure-seeking majority that wanted to regain access to a recreational drug. Yet here, too, federal officials looked on with some fear and trembling as the public delivered its unwelcome verdict in the form of referenda that had originated outside