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.: Wine Growers of Dry Creek Valley, 1993. Francisco, Cathleen. Zinfandel: A Reference Guide to California Zinfandel. South San Francisco: Wine Appreciation Guild, 2001. Looks at current Zinfandel producers. Haraszthy, Arpad. Wine-Making in California. San Francisco: Book Club of California, 1978. This volume is a reprint of Haraszthy’s articles that were published in Overland Monthly in 1871–1872. Its importance here is the biographical essay on Haraszthy by Ruth Teiser and Catherine Harroun. Hawkes, Ellen. Blood and Wine: The Unauthorized Story of the Gallo Wine


Society for Enology and Viticulture a series of seven papers on vineyard variables affecting wine quality, based on the reduc- tionist methodology I had learned at Davis. A simple example. We were making White Zinfandel that had more of a canned tomato soup aroma than the fresh strawberry notes I was seeking. Accordingly, I conducted a series of small-lot duplicate trials to test a variety of vineyard variables and winemaking procedures, presenting the resulting samples to a trained panel in a double-blind setting, asking the panel to rate the samples for the

flavor of a wine to be an act of interpretation means that we have brought the human element into our definition of terroir. This is as it should be. Because of the leap from the growing of grapes in a vineyard to the perception of flavors in a wine glass, terroir has to be partly cultural. Ulti- mately, it is for us to decide together about legitimate and illegitimate expressions of a terroir, and this will depend on many factors. The traditional winemaking t h e a rt of i n t e r p r e tat ion . 13 practices in a region may be reflected in the way that the

our percep- tion. Careful use of language reminds us of important issues. For this reason, I believe that we should stop using the term winemaker. My preference is for winegrower. It better reflects the role of human agency in the production of wines, which at its heart is a microbiological transformation. t h e s k i l l of w i n e g row i ng . 5 on understanding and observation, not sitting back and hoping for the best. Terroir often speaks with a quiet voice, and winemaking interventions can drown out the vital, nuanced signatures of place, and flatten

Eaux-de-Vie (INAO). Aroma: A “tasting term used to indicate the smells of a wine, particularly those deriving from the grape and fermentation.”C Some distinguish aroma (the smells derived from the grape) from bouquet (the smells associated with the winemaking process), particularly in the bottle. Aroma Wheel: A graphical representation of tasting terms for aroma, which helps 213 to standardize terminology used in wine tasting. It was created by Dr. Ann Noble. Assemblage: “The blending of wine from different grape varieties, fermenta- tion vats, and/or vineyard plots


throughout its pages who contrib- uted to my understanding of wine, I have chosen my greatest teachers for elaboration here. No greater professional good fortune could have befallen me than the tutelage of Patrick Ducournau of Oenodev/Vivelys, who (I dare any- one to contest) is the twentieth century’s most important enological innovator. His view of élevage would never have dented my conscious- ness, however, were it not for his lieutenant, Thierry Lemaire, the most remarkable postmodern winemaking ambassador to the English- speaking world that can be imagined, and

- proach to natural winemaking fi rmly on scientifi c experimentation and observation. One person who knew him well was Hans Ulrich Kesselring of the Swiss domaine Bachtobel. Sadly, Kesselring— a thoughtful, intelligent man— died somewhat prema- turely in 2008, but we discussed Chauvet together after meeting in Switzerland in 2006. Kesselring had worked for a while with Chauvet and produced a book based on their dis- cussions (Le vin en question/Wine in Question [Paris: Editions Jean- Paul Rocher, 1998]). Here’s what he had to say: Chauvet was the heir to a family

dank basement smell- ing of mold and vinegar. And I’ve had to smile and comment on murky stuff that was—how to say it nicely?—interesting and unusual. “Real” wine versus homemade. I’ll let you in on a secret: there’s nothing magical about top-quality winemaking, never mind what the world’s wine experts would have you believe. I’ve made wine in lots as small as 10 gallons, and I’ve worked in wineries that produced thousands of gallons. At Dashe Cellars, a premium winery in Northern California, I’ve put bunches by the ton through a crusher, pumped over, punched


in life so seamlessly that little appears to separate occupations as dis- parate as working in the vineyard and teaching Shakespeare in the summer for his alma mater, St. John’s College. Early on, Eric Sims of Robert Mondavi Winery, during a serendipitous meeting on a plane, oªered us important contacts and direction. In particular, he pointed us toward consultant and winemaker David de Sante, who spent a whirlwind day filling us in on the history of Napa winemaking and bringing us quickly up to speed on new developments. Of the many people de Sante suggested we

for many of the American practitioners of Rhône varietal wines, about winemaking, blending, about vine growing for the rapidly growing pantheon of varieties, about ways to tease out a variety’s ideal expression. How did the élevage for Syrah, for Grenache, for Mourvèdre and Viognier diff er from other French varieties in California soil? What was the proper handling of these wines in the fermenting tank? In the cellar? Most of the winemakers now taking the lead in this new category were still woefully inexperienced, relying on intuition, good sense, and plenty