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— the Carolinas, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana—are a special case in the grape-growing world. This is the home of Pierce’s disease, a mortal enemy to most grapes; it flourishes especially in the warm lowlands, so grape growing—with one exception—is largely barred in those regions. The exception is Vitis rotundifolia, which appears to have reached an accommodation with Pierce’s disease in some long-ago botan- ical age.19 Florida is, in effect, all low-lying, warm, humid land; so is much of Louisiana. In both states viticulture is practically


Preface This history is a first attempt to tell the story of grape growing and winemaking in the United States from the beginning and in detail. Now that winegrowing in the United States has succeeded so brilliantly after long years of frustration, and now that it is beginning once again to spread to nearly every state in the union, it seems to me particularly fitting that the many obscure and forgotten people and their work lying behind that success should be brought out into the light. It is also in- structive to see how many names celebrated in other

Parker’s influence is so great that many wineries have styled their wines into what he calls “hedonistic fruit bombs” simply to please his palate. Why does one man’s palate decide the winners and losers in the world of wine? Why are consumers at risk of confronting a sea of undifferentiated wine? In a word, politics. Critics and commentators widely acknowledge the importance of the growing area and winemaking style in creating what ends up in the bottle. But, more than wine consumers realize, politics matters, too. Politics determines not only which grapes grow where

. Though there were undoubtedly many vineyards on the islands, the islanders’ incomes were mostly derived from the raisining of grapes, not from turning them into wine. Unlike today, when the bulk of Lipari wine grapes grows on the island of Salina (historically always the greenest of the Aeolian isles), with very small pockets on a few others (Vulcano, Stromboli, Panarea, and Lipari), other islands had a florid viticulture at the end of the seven- teenth century (Campis 1980). At that time, Lipari, Salina, Panarea, and surprisingly, Filicudi (known as

160 grape and wine were already typical of this cor- ner of northern Lombardy in ancient Roman times: we have no way of knowing if the two really are that old, though Don Celso Lotteri, the parson of the town of Villa, wrote that in the first century b.c. the Roman founders of the towns of Villa, Scanzo, and Rosciate believed their local red grapes special and began produc- tion of a Moscato wine that quickly became one of the most expensive of those times (Lotteri 1852). A 1340 document attests to the grape growing locally, so it has been hanging

years ago, to the Lower Eocene, or roughly 55 million to 48 million years ago), and Euganean marls (which have a high clay content and were deposited in the Lower Eocene and Oligocene, or 33.9 million to 28.4 million years ago). In terms most relevant to grape growing and winemaking, it is impor- tant to remember that the Colli Euganei denomination is characterized by essentially two major soil types: volcanic and calcareous marl (with a small section where alluvial soils dominate). Moscato Giallo has long called the Colli Euganei home (Zamorani et al. 1987

show. And though Refosco Nostrano’s larger grapes ensure a higher pulp-to-skin ratio, the tannins are not exactly wimpy—a sensation that is reinforced by note- worthy acidity. (Refosco Nostrano wines tend to be slightly higher in acidity than those made with other Refoscos.) 248 the grape varieties and their specific terroirs ments where grape growing has always been looked at mostly as a hobby or as a way to make wine for family and friends. This may yet prove to be a very good terroir for white grapes, the caveat being that historically Faedis’s upper

; John F. Von Daacke, "'Sparkling Catawba': Grape Growing and Wine Making in Cincinnati, 1800-1870" (M.A. thesis, University of Cincinnati, 1964), p. 7. 77. Niles3 Weekly Register 4 (24 July 1813): 344. 78. William Cobbett, in Lindley, ed., Indiana as Seen by Early Travellers, p. 508: 17 June 1817. 79. Timothy Flint, Recollections of the Last Ten Years (Boston, 1826), pp. 59-60. 80. Lindley, ed., Indiana as Seen by Early Travellers, p. 522. 81. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide, p. 33. 82. Ferret Dufour, Swiss Settlement, p. 25. 83. Dufour, Vine-Dresser's Guide, p. u. 84

of California Press, 2008. Hargrave, Louisa Thomas. The Vineyard: The Pleasures and Perils of Creating an American Family Winery. New York: Viking, 2003. Hart, James D. A Companion to California. New ed. Berkeley: University of Cali- fornia Press, 1987. Hawkes, Ellen. Blood and Wine: The Unauthorized Story of the Gallo Wine Empire. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993. Heintz, William. California’s Napa Valley. San Francisco: Scottwall Associates, 1999. Husmann, George. American Grape Growing and Wine Making. New York: Orange Judd, 1880. ———. The Cultivation of

we refer to today as criollas. They depended, however, on local technology: it was the irrigation engineering of the Inca emperor Pachacutec, the builder of Machu Picchu, that enabled the first vineyards to be planted south of Lima in 1548. As the conquistadores ventured farther south and east, grape growing and winemaking spread into Chile and northern Argentina. Pedro de Valdivia, one of Pizarro’s most trusted officers, settled Santiago (in 1541), La Serena (1544), and Concepción (1550). As he moved south, he was met with brave resis- tance by the native