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minor offender compared to some of Oakland’s other Orthodox “wine rabbis,” who, unlike Paper, sold mostly to non- Jews.* One rabbi, who made deliveries from a horse- drawn “laundry wagon,” included among his c o s m o p o l i t a n s224 * In Oakland, as in other cities, “Orthodox bootlegging” was considered scandalous by Reform leaders. Temple Sinai’s Rabbi Rudolph Coffee used grape juice rather than wine to avoid even the suggestion of impropriety. customers a few influential Irish politicians,123 which kept the police far from his door. The repeal of Prohibition

. Rose, Kenneth. American Women and the Repeal of Prohibition. New York: New York University Press, 1996. Rossi, Edmund A. “The Coming Expansion of the Table Wine Market.” Wines and Vines 25 (December 1944): 29, 47. ———. “Licenses That Burden the Wine Trade.” California Journal of Development 24 (December 1934): 11, 38–39. Rossi, Robert D. “Post-Repeal Wine Consumption.” Wines and Vines 16 (January 1935): 3–4. Rossi, Robert, Jr. “United Vintners Expands Its Madera Premises.” Wines and Vines 43 (September 1962): 25, 27. Roueché, Berton. “Breathing through the Wood.” New

winemaking, after the Repeal of Prohibition, was “repression of fault technology,” including heavy doses of sulfur and cool-temperature fermentations, and that “cabernet was a variety that could get through [such treatments] while pinot could not.” In a  interview with Wines & Vines, Mondavi said, “For us, pinot noir is the grape that began to help us make a change to a more natural way of looking at wine, and a greater understanding of terroir.” In its early years, Mondavi’s pinot program was based on fruit from the Stags Leap district; the orientation

vinifera vineyard in the 132 • W I N E R Y P R O F I L E S valley. He bonded Leonetti Cellar in 1978, the first vinifera winery in Walla Walla since the repeal of Prohibition. Eleven years later, just as the new winery was nearing comple- tion, he retired from his full-time work as a machinist at Continental Can to devote him- self completely to winemaking. His goals, which are now almost fully realized, were to focus his efforts on producing just three or four red wines a year while gradually moving away from using Columbia Valley grapes. He dreamed that one day

America was the bad taste left after the repeal of Prohibition. When Repeal arrived in 1933, vineyard quality had been terribly degraded because of home winemakers’ preference for hardy, abundant grapes over good wine grapes. Thus the 1930s saw tremendous surpluses: quality was dismal, and the economy was strug- gling. In 1934, producers formed the Wine Institute to carry out market- ing and consumer education, but with little immediate success: by 1938, the glut was so severe that a federal prorate order was issued, requiring producers to divert almost half of their

consumption in France is astonishing because it ran directly counter to so many trends in the interwar period. As President Franklin Roosevelt was warning about a return to the bad old days after the repeal of Prohibition, the French government was urging its citizen to drink, drink, and drink more wine. Yet for all the effort and cost, the campaign foundered on the economic realities of the Depression, which depressed consumers’ real income. During the 1920s, adult per capita wine consumption averaged 117 liters (30.9 gallons) a year in France; in the 1930s

Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution was Chapter 9 | Alcohol Abuse 257 repealed. Once again, the legal spigots for alcohol were open in the United States. The Medicalization of Problem Drinking While the Prohibition temperance movement drew support from Rush’s con- cern with the eff ects of heavy drinking on society, it paid little attention to his description of alcoholism as a disease. In the decades following the repeal of Prohibition, however, the disease model of alcoholism grew to dominate Amer- ican discourse about problem drinking. One of the pivotal

formal structure to overcome.” In wine making, as in cooking, there was a schism between training and instinct. Many of the first wave of winemakers in the late 1970s— a veritable honor role of vintners— came out of the Viticulture and Enology Department at UC Davis. This research and education program was founded in 1880 and became established on the Davis campus in 1935. Following the repeal of Prohibition in 1933, the program concentrated on ways to increase yields, improve quality, and determine the varieties and clones that would do best in the different

and black workers were also involved in picketing the Alaskan Packers' Association, which resulted in the abolition of the contract system and the establishment of the Chinese Workers Mutual Aid Association.36 Given the overall lib- eral temper and China's alliance with the United States at the time, lo- cal unions openly solicited Chinese members and worked with them to protest fascism abroad.37 Because of the foresight of the younger generation of Chinese American businessmen, who were quick to take advantage of the repeal of prohibition laws and promote

represented the apotheosis of the urban American nightclub. After the repeal of Prohibition, opposition to nightlife weakened across the country, and nightclubs became a more acceptable part of urban culture. Thanks to a booming wartime econ- omy and the disruption of family life caused by army recruitment, the 1940s and 1950s represented “the biggest era” yet for the nation’s niter- ies: “Uprooted from their homes with money to spend, ordinary soldiers from around the country for the first time had the chance to patronize nightclubs. Fueled by wartime expenditures