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the American wine industry by 1900. During the first half of the twentieth century, however, Cali- fornia saw its wine industry devastated by Prohibition, the Great De- pression, and two world wars. Not until the mid-1960s did it regain the prestige it had lost because of the decline in its winery population and the scarcity of winemaking talent.5 Postwar prosperity, consumer affluence, changing lifestyles, the as- sociation of fine wine with prestige and status, increased advertising, technological advances that improved wine quality, better-educated wine- makers

333 About Wine (Henderson and Rex), 307 acetaldehyde: See aldehyde Acetobacter, 114, 279 acidity, 69, 74, 75, 92, 123, 163; deacidifi cation, 203, 210–17; defect as virtue, 244; as element of structure, 329; high pH winemaking, 39, 111–19, 124; malic acid problem, 38, 43, 213–14; measures of, 95–96, 211–13; and minerality, 104, 107, 109, 110, 155; perception of, 108; and salivation, 117 Adams, Doug, 33, 70; Adams assay, 87, 89, 132 aging, 13, 20, 28, 31–42, 155, 198, 242, 250, 306, 326, 327; in bottle, 309, 331; and Brettanomyces, 125; measuring

important subzones not just of the FCO and Friuli–Venezia Giulia, but of all of Italy. This is because Rosazzo has a unique historic link to specific high-quality cultivars that once grew practically nowhere else but there, and because, still today, it is where some of Italy’s greatest wines are made. Clearly, Rosazzo’s viti- cultural and winemaking history is intimately linked to the beautiful abbey; though the site was originally the home of a hermit who founded an oratory there, over time the abbey came under the watchful eye first of the Augus- tinians, then


| 117 29. don’t expect others to pick up your tab | 122 30. true to origins | 125 31. no new clothes | 128 32. bright side story | 131 33. no one drinks wine blind | 135 34. you don’t drink the same wine at home | 138 35. beer is better than wine | 141 36. escape the small oak rut | 144 37. segment or be damned | 149 38. balance is not always in the middle | 153 39. we are on a journey; this is mine | 156 40. don’t expect the fish to come to you | 164 41. lead with your best | 167 42. beware the wine consumer champions | 170 43. winemaking is not chemistry


contents List of Maps vii Acknowledgments ix Introduction 1 part one: the grape, the wine, and the history Chapter 1. The Basics 11 Chapter 2. The Burgundian Connection 24 Chapter 3. The Rise of Pinot Noir in North America 33 Chapter 4. Where It Happens 61 Chapter 5. Clones and Selections of Pinot Noir 128 Chapter 6. Winegrowing and Winemaking 149 Chapter 7. Burgundies and North American Pinots Compared 175 Chapter 8. Reflections 187 part two: profiles of key producers Introduction 193 196 Acacia Winery 200 Ancien Wines 203 Archery Summit Estate 206 Au Bon Climat

1 7 How Wine Is Made it is a truism that wine is made in the vineyard, and that other truism—it takes great grapes to make great wine—is also beyond dispute. Yet, when one sees professional winemakers coming up with dramatically different results from the same vineyard sources, it also becomes true and patently obvious that the hand of the winemaker is the key ingredient in bringing out the personality that is hidden in the fruit. Winemaking is part craft and part art, and it is only when the two are combined to very good effect that great wine can be made

, Roger, 182; on winemaking, 167–69 Bourgueil region (France), 78 Bourguignon, Claude: on climate, 112–13; on soil and terroir, 82–85 Bourguignon, Lydia: on climate, 112–13; on soil and terroir, 82–85 Bragato, Romeo, 267 Brazil, 96, 179 Brettanomyces, 160 Brillat-Savarin, 40 Brix (soluble solids), 138, 146, 147, 172–73, 276–77 Archer, Eben, 217 Argentina, 96, 103 Arnold, Jean, 246–47 aroma attributes, 194fi g., 196tab. aroma compounds, grape-derived, 141tab. aroma terms, 193tab., 197, 210, 218, 219 aromatic molecules, 84, 173 Asens, Joan, 263 Asher, Gerald, 20

rms regularly buy and sell wine brands as a stand-alone asset, indepen- Wine-Firm Behavior | 183 dent of wineries, the services of winemaking personnel, or vineyards. A recent transaction provides an example. Prior to 2007, the Davis Bynum wine fi rm produced fi ve single-varietal wine products—Pinot noir, Chardonnay, Zinfandel, Sauvignon blanc, and Merlot—and sold them under the Davis Bynum brand name. About 8,000 cases of these prod- ucts were produced each year in a Davis Bynum–owned winery from both purchased grapes and grapes grown in a Davis Bynum

regulation of winemaking while at the same time refusing to resume its role in assisting and encouraging viticulture and winemaking. Yet while hampering regulations prolifer- ated, there was no organization within the wine trade itself, no concerted means whereby it might promote itself, defend itself against attack and injury, or present itself effectively to an uninformed public. It was not merely unorganized: it did not know its own busi- ness. Whatever standards and traditions had operated before Prohibition had been effec- tively lost. Nothing but the barest minimum

carbon dioxide, the complex chemistry that occurs during fermentation also involves the formation of myriad fl avour molecules from precursors present in the must. Figures widely quoted suggest that of the estimated eight hundred or so volatile fl avour compounds found in wine, at least four hundred are produced by yeasts. Whether or not these fi gures are based on actual mea sure ments or are just an educated guess, the big picture is clear: without yeasts we wouldn’t have wine. From the earliest days of winemaking, some nine thousand years ago, until the mid