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Chapter I Jean Louis Vignes, William Wolf skill, and the Beginnings of Commercial Viniculture, 1830-184.8 NOTHING IS W A N T I N G but intelligent persons, to make wine of a superior quality . . . " 1 Forbes wrote this in 1839, six years after the Mexican government had initiated a policy that was ulti-mately to destroy the missions, which had been the chief centers of California viticulture, and thus prepare the way for commercial production. Since southern Cali- fornia had dominated grape growing and wine making un- der the Spanish missions, it was

’s Finger Lakes, thereby encouraging a suc- cession of books on growing grapes for wine. John Dufour’s American Vine-Dresser’s Guide appeared in Cincinnati in 1826; Alphonse Loubat’s, similarly titled, in New York in 1827; and Alden Spooner’s story of suc- cess with native American vines after repeated failures with European varieties was published in Brooklyn in 1846. More followed, the most important of which were Friedrich Muench’s School for American Grape Culture (Saint Louis, 1865), George Husmann’s American Grape Growing and Wine Making (New York, 1880), and

). In fact, Fiano is very site sensitive, and its wines differ greatly depending on where the grapes grow. It is rich in geraniol and linalool (these terpenes explain the wine’s floral note), but the presence of free alkyl-2-metoxypyrazines and volatile phenols also explains the toasty note that Fiano wines develop with age (Moio 2012). Moio’s research team at the University of Naples has also found significant concentrations of many other aro- matic molecule precursors, such as terpin-4-ol, β-damascenone, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydro- naphthalene (TDN, the

9 Into the Fog, and Above It The Sonoma Coast Beyond Guerneville, grape growing enters a real no-man’s-land. The dis- tance from Guerneville to the coast is only about a dozen miles as the crow flies, but it’s light years away in almost every other respect. Guerneville, with its cafés and souvenir shops, is San Francisco in the redwoods. Fort Ross, as Don Jorge and the Russians discovered, is more like a remote out- post in the Aleutians. “It cannot be practically farmed,” declared J. P. Munro-Fraser, author of the History of Sonoma County, concerning the coast

2 8 7 San Francisco Bay, Santa Cruz Mountains, and Solano County M o s t l y U r b a n C o u n t i e s a n d A l l w i t h W i n e C o u n t r y People who live in northern California know that the term Bay Area includes nine counties in and around San Francisco, the much-loved “City by the Bay.” San Francisco Bay has now been adopted as the name under which several grape growing counties (San Francisco, Contra Costa, Alameda, San Mateo and Santa Clara), plus parts of San Benito and Santa Cruz Counties to the east and south of San Francisco have

9 Into the Fog, and Above It The Sonoma Coast Beyond Guerneville, grape growing enters a real no-man’s-land. The dis- tance from Guerneville to the coast is only about a dozen miles as the crow flies, but it’s light years away in almost every other respect. Guerneville, with its cafés and souvenir shops, is San Francisco in the redwoods. Fort Ross, as Don Jorge and the Russians discovered, is more like a remote out- post in the Aleutians. “It cannot be practically farmed,” declared J. P. Munro-Fraser, author of the History of Sonoma County, concerning the coast

pacesetters in assuming a large share of the chanciness in grape growing by buying vineyards and in- stalling the former owners of them, as employees on salary, in their own homes. They are pacesetters in applying modern processing techniques to the ancient art of converting grapes into wine.1 Taylor was now, at the beginning of the ’60s, by far the largest of the upstate New York wineries, and therefore by far the largest winery in the country outside California. Sales 253 of Taylor wines had approached the 2.5-million-gallon mark in 1959, and the winery was poised for

Culture of the Grape, and Wine-Making (Cincinnati: Moore and Anderson, 1852), p. 26. 8. “Mr. Longworth is of opinion that upwards of five thousand varieties of the grape grow wild in Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Missouri, North and South Carolina, California, and other central and eastern States of the Union” (Charles Mackay, “The Queen City of the West,” Illustrated London News, March 20, 1858, 297). 9. Longworth, “Grape and Manufacture of Wine,” p. 302. 10. Cist, Sketches, p. 47. 11. Longworth, “Grape and Manufacture of Wine,” p. 305. Adulteration with cheap whiskey

his experience, but something of what that had been is clearly implied by Vaughan's recommendation of native rather than imported vines. Another positive result of Legaux's activity was to secure the interest of Dr. James Mease (1771-1846), a prominent Philadelphia physician and writer. When the Vine Company was promoted, Dr. Mease became one of the managers. A man of science, he had a technical as well as a commercial interest in the possi- bilities of grape growing and did what he could to advance the understanding of the subject. In 1802, when he was preparing a

grapes are grown), wine labeling laws had to be modernized to accurately reflect the authenticity of these new Amer- ican wines. In designing an American appellation system, the government was loath to adopt the Old World systems, which involved extensive con- trols over all facets of grape growing and winemaking; and vintners and growers disliked those foreign models because they felt they would ham- per their spirit of innovation. America needed its own appellation system and its own wine lexicon. As wine consumption expanded, so did concerns about health effects and