-arm methods during the bootlegging era, they were left
high and dry by the repealofProhibition—if the metaphor is permitted—
and they moved onto the docks. How did such individuals become a part
of the industry? Some were brought in by stevedoring companies as hiring
foremen. One company official explained his rationale for this policy:
Yes, our labor policy is tough. It has to be . . . because it
is a rough, tough business. Now about criminals working on the
docks: this may sound terrible to you, but I don't care whether
they are criminals or not, just so long as
appellation contrôlée unless it is a part of the appellation itself (e.g.,
Haut-Médoc). Following the repealofProhibition in the United
States, the name was much used for any white wine that its maker
might choose to put in the bottle so labeled; the practice has now
disappeared. The omission of the s at the end of “Sauternes” was
standard on U.S. labels but is remarkable on a European bottling.
97 Freytag’s best novel: Gustav Freytag, Soll und Haben (1855): “ ‘At
least not your terrible white Burgundy,’ cried Guido Tronko. ‘My
veins are still swollen like cords from
the main argument of the Women’s Organization was home
protection, by which it effectively took the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union’s po-
sition away from it (American Women and the RepealofProhibition [New York: New York
University Press, 1996], pp. 2, 90).
23. Kyvig, Repealing National Prohibition, pp. 122–23. Among the o‹cers of the Women’s
Organization were Gladys Harriman, wife of a Brown Brothers Harriman partner; Mrs.
Archibald Roosevelt, daughter-in-law of Theodore Roosevelt; Alice du Pont, wife of the
chairman of the board of du Pont; and others of
Woman’s Christian Tem-
perance Union in International Perspective, 1880–1930 (Chapel Hill: University of
North Carolina Press, 2014), 232.
28. Tyrell, Woman’s World/Woman’s Empire, 231–41.
29. Kenneth D. Rose, American Women and the RepealofProhibition (New
York: New York University Press, 1997), 159n63; Jessica R. Pliley, Policing Sexuality:
The Mann Act and the Making of the FBI (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press, 2014), 21.
30. Ruth Bordin, Woman and Temperance: The Quest for Power and Liberty,
1873–1900 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981), 3
. Kenneth Allsop, The Bootleggers: The Story of Prohibition 73 (Arlington
174. Id. at 72.
175. Foppiano Vineyards, Recalling RepealofProhibition on Its 6oth Anniver-
sary (March 29,1993), published by Foppiano Vineyards, Healdsburg, CA.
176. Allsop, The Bootleggers at 77.
177. Id. at 26.
178. Teiser and Harroun, The Volstead Act at 60.
179. Wickersham Report at 33. The domestic production of corn sugar soared
during Prohibition, with a six-fold increase between 1919 and 1929. The Wicker-
sham Commission acknowledged that the legitimate uses of corn sugar
Copland and Bernstein’s apparent sexual liaison (ca. the late 1930s) see the
anecdote in Meryle Secrest, Leonard Bernstein: A Life (New York: Alfred A.
Knopf, 1994), 96.
24. For more than three decades following the repealofProhibition, the
State Liquor Authority, the police, the military, and the courts in New York
imposed “disorderly conduct” prohibitions on bar patrons deemed homosex-
ual. This “amounted to a virtual ban on the public assembly of gay men and
women” (347): see Chauncey, Gay New York, 337–47. For an excellent and
lucid summary of Foucault
between these absurd op-
posites. Even now, more than half a century after the repealofProhibition, any-
one who knows anything about the patterns of American drinking can observe the
continuing effects of this conflict: for many Americans, it is hard to be natural
and straightforward on the question, whether one drinks or does not drink. There
remains something problematical and troubling in the subject, whatever side
The immediate question for the winemakers looking over the desolate scene
left behind by the Dry years was to educate the American public in
marketplace in the decades
following the repealofProhibition. The wines were simply bottled as Burgundy,
Chablis, and Rhine (supposedly a nod to their imagined European antecedents), such
terms rather vaguely indicating whether a wine was “hearty,” sweet (Rhine), or dry
(Chablis). Sauternes, Sherry, Port, and especially Champagne were also terms widely
appropriated and abused, with the result that American consumers, who were just
beginning to explore and learn about wine in the 1960s and ’70s, were often left more
confused than ever.
Most jug wines included
anti-tobacco literature was also reappearing, having recovered somewhat
from the repealofProhibition in the early 1930s. (Many anti-alcohol activists had
also opposed tobacco use, whence the battle cry aer the passage of the volstead
Act in 1919: “Nicotine next!”) Charles L. van Noppen’s Death in Cellophane appeared
in 1937, reporting evidence of smokers shortening their lives by “seven or more
years” on average, with a total loss to the nation of “more than 100,000 deaths an-
nually.” van Noppen also compiled anti-tobacco utterances such as that by Hud-
Very truly yours, | Clarence Darrow
24. Frank Spurlock (1854–1947), a lawyer from Chattanooga, Tennessee, was well known as a local lawyer who
championed civil liberties, including the repealofProhibition laws. Although he was always in private
practice, he was also general counsel for many years for the Chattanooga Times, the city water company, a
local railroad, and other companies.
25. Robert S. Keebler (1889–1976), a lawyer from Memphis, Tennessee, had been a vocal critic of the law under
which Scopes was prosecuted. In June 1925, before the trial, he