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-arm methods during the bootlegging era, they were left high and dry by the repeal of Prohibition—if the metaphor is permitted— and they moved onto the docks. How did such individuals become a part of the industry? Some were brought in by stevedoring companies as hiring foremen. One company official explained his rationale for this policy: Yes, our labor policy is tough. It has to be . . . because it is a rough, tough business. Now about criminals working on the docks: this may sound terrible to you, but I don't care whether they are criminals or not, just so long as

appellation contrôlée unless it is a part of the appellation itself (e.g., Haut-Médoc). Following the repeal of Prohibition in the United States, the name was much used for any white wine that its maker might choose to put in the bottle so labeled; the practice has now disappeared. The omission of the s at the end of “Sauternes” was standard on U.S. labels but is remarkable on a European bottling. 97 Freytag’s best novel: Gustav Freytag, Soll und Haben (1855): “ ‘At least not your terrible white Burgundy,’ cried Guido Tronko. ‘My veins are still swollen like cords from

the main argument of the Women’s Organization was home protection, by which it effectively took the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union’s po- sition away from it (American Women and the Repeal of Prohibition [New York: New York University Press, 1996], pp. 2, 90). 23. Kyvig, Repealing National Prohibition, pp. 122–23. Among the o‹cers of the Women’s Organization were Gladys Harriman, wife of a Brown Brothers Harriman partner; Mrs. Archibald Roosevelt, daughter-in-law of Theodore Roosevelt; Alice du Pont, wife of the chairman of the board of du Pont; and others of

Woman’s Christian Tem- perance Union in International Perspective, 1880–1930 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014), 232. 28. Tyrell, Woman’s World/Woman’s Empire, 231–41. 29. Kenneth D. Rose, American Women and the Repeal of Prohibition (New York: New York University Press, 1997), 159n63; Jessica R. Pliley, Policing Sexuality: The Mann Act and the Making of the FBI (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014), 21. 30. Ruth Bordin, Woman and Temperance: The Quest for Power and Liberty, 1873–1900 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981), 3

. Kenneth Allsop, The Bootleggers: The Story of Prohibition 73 (Arlington House 1961). 174. Id. at 72. 175. Foppiano Vineyards, Recalling Repeal of Prohibition on Its 6oth Anniver- sary (March 29,1993), published by Foppiano Vineyards, Healdsburg, CA. 176. Allsop, The Bootleggers at 77. 177. Id. at 26. 178. Teiser and Harroun, The Volstead Act at 60. 179. Wickersham Report at 33. The domestic production of corn sugar soared during Prohibition, with a six-fold increase between 1919 and 1929. The Wicker- sham Commission acknowledged that the legitimate uses of corn sugar

6–7 Copland and Bernstein’s apparent sexual liaison (ca. the late 1930s) see the anecdote in Meryle Secrest, Leonard Bernstein: A Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994), 96. 24. For more than three decades following the repeal of Prohibition, the State Liquor Authority, the police, the military, and the courts in New York imposed “disorderly conduct” prohibitions on bar patrons deemed homosex- ual. This “amounted to a virtual ban on the public assembly of gay men and women” (347): see Chauncey, Gay New York, 337–47. For an excellent and lucid summary of Foucault

between these absurd op- posites. Even now, more than half a century after the repeal of Prohibition, any- one who knows anything about the patterns of American drinking can observe the continuing effects of this conflict: for many Americans, it is hard to be natural and straightforward on the question, whether one drinks or does not drink. There remains something problematical and troubling in the subject, whatever side one takes. The immediate question for the winemakers looking over the desolate scene left behind by the Dry years was to educate the American public in

marketplace in the decades following the repeal of Prohibition. The wines were simply bottled as Burgundy, Chablis, and Rhine (supposedly a nod to their imagined European antecedents), such terms rather vaguely indicating whether a wine was “hearty,” sweet (Rhine), or dry (Chablis). Sauternes, Sherry, Port, and especially Champagne were also terms widely appropriated and abused, with the result that American consumers, who were just beginning to explore and learn about wine in the 1960s and ’70s, were often left more confused than ever. Most jug wines included

anti-tobacco literature was also reappearing, having recovered somewhat from the repeal of Prohibition in the early 1930s. (Many anti-alcohol activists had also opposed tobacco use, whence the battle cry aer the passage of the volstead Act in 1919: “Nicotine next!”) Charles L. van Noppen’s Death in Cellophane appeared in 1937, reporting evidence of smokers shortening their lives by “seven or more years” on average, with a total loss to the nation of “more than 100,000 deaths an- nually.” van Noppen also compiled anti-tobacco utterances such as that by Hud- son Maxim

reciprocated. Very truly yours, | Clarence Darrow 24. Frank Spurlock (1854–1947), a lawyer from Chattanooga, Tennessee, was well known as a local lawyer who championed civil liberties, including the repeal of Prohibition laws. Although he was always in private practice, he was also general counsel for many years for the Chattanooga Times, the city water company, a local railroad, and other companies. 25. Robert S. Keebler (1889–1976), a lawyer from Memphis, Tennessee, had been a vocal critic of the law under which Scopes was prosecuted. In June 1925, before the trial, he