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the wine world seems to be that we might have lost some- thing. In 2015, noted American wine commentator Matt Kramer published a short book titled True Taste: The Seven Essential Wine Words. In it he prompts us to move away from a focus on flavor identification, to more global, thoughtful, subjective terms that capture the qualities of wine better. “Too many tasting notes now offer little more than a string of fanciful flavor descriptors with the judgment revealed only in the score itself—a numerical ‘thank you ma’am’ after the more energetic ‘slam, bam

a seller but one who has to do with the entire process of winegrowing, as in the phrase now common on American wine labels, "vinted and bottled by." Vintage is an instance of the opposite process of narrowed meaning: originally vintage meant harvest, but it is now generally understood to mean "good harvest," as in "vintage year" or "vintage wine." b. French terms still felt to be alien but in fact used by writers in English include: appellation, brut, cave, cepage, chai, chambrer, chaptali^ation, climat, clos, cru, cuvage, cuvee, eleveur, marc, negotiant

drink. And yet another revealed that both rum and Spanish brandy are known as aguardiente, which, being translated, means “water for the teeth.”4 The authors of House- hold Guide to Wines and Liquors (an instance that Schoonmaker missed) informed their readers that Catawba was “produced from Muscat grapes.” There were some sane voices in the midst of this foolish hubbub: Schoonmaker him- self, with Tom Marvel, published the Complete Wine Book; Julian Street’s Wines was reli- able; and Philip Wagner’s American Wines and How to Make Them—published just as Re- peal

numerous references to wine, could separate wine from beer and spirits. Court cases challenging the prohibitory state laws in the latter part of the nineteenth century were brought by brewers mostly, dis- tillers occasionally, but rarely by wineries. Wine made up a very small part of the overall liquor market, and much of it was reserved for the elite. Today, wine is increasingly popular and affordable in America. Wine ap- preciation is growing nationwide. Yet there is no national consensus—nor will there be one anytime soon—on the role of wine in American society and

, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Throw in pizzas and pasta in Argentina, pasta and roast chicken in southern Brazil, and varied regional protein and simple vegetable stews (chupe in Chile, locro in Argentina, and the heartier feijoada, a bean and meat stew, in Brazil) and you have South American everyday dining in a nutshell. The simplicity of these cuisines is at once a strength and a weakness, especially in wine country. Most travelers to South American wine country start out wanting to dine native, devouring platters of empanadas and grilled meat, washed down by bottles

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to an institution, it would have to be to the Huntington. Finally, I should like to make grateful acknowledgment to a writer personally unknown to me, Philip Wagner. For more than fifty years he has been writing gracefully, originally, and authoritatively about American wines and vines, and no one else now living can have done so much through his writings to foster an intelli- gent interest in wine among Americans. xvii This page intentionally left blank

Vintage: The Rise of American Wine. New York: Norton. ———. 2005. The Great Wines of America. New York: Norton. MacNeil, Karen. 2001. The Wine Bible. New York: Workman. Malorgio, Giulio, Anna Hertzberg, and Cristina Grazia. 2008. “Italian Wine Consumer Behavior and Wineries Responsive Capacity.” Paper presented at the Twelfth International Congress of the European Association of Agricul- tural Economists, Gent, Belgium, August 26–29. Manning, Willard G., Emmett B. Keeler, Joseph P. Newhouse, Elizabeth M. Sloss, and Jeffrey Wasserman. 1989. “The Taxes of Sin: Do

1965, more than twenty years after Winkler and Amerine’s recommenda- tions had been published, the visible results were so meager that Amerine felt he had wasted his time on the work: so discouraged was he that, as he later wrote, he would have left the university for “the right biochemical job” if one had been offered then.22 The work was having its invisible effects, however; what had been a grad- ual and scattered development for years at last gathered momentum in the late 1960s, when, as part of a general change in the fortunes of American wine, Californians

T E R 1 3 sibility for successful grape growing in its eastern valleys” and gave Maynard Amerine as his authority.9 Frank Schoonmaker, writing in 1941, a‹rmed that although Washington winemaking was in its “embryonic” state, Washington sooner or later “will produce fine wines and will rank among the best viticultural regions of the United States.”10 Amerine, writing in 1942 to describe American wine for an English readership, casually remarked that “proper varieties of V. vinifera, planted in the cooler districts of California (or in sim- ilar regions of the

14 CALIFORNIA TO THE PRESENT DAY THE STATISTICS OF RECENT HISTORY Since the revolution occurred in American wine, the wine industry’s road in California has often been bumpy and di‹cult, but never enough to turn back a steady movement of growth. A comparison of the figures from 1970, when the revolution had clearly be- gun, with those from the end of the century in 2000 shows the direction quite clearly.1 To start in the vineyards: In 1970 the acreage devoted to grapes of all kinds in Cali- fornia was 479,000; in 2000 it was 852,000. For wine grapes, the numbers