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Reclamation, 2002. Phillips, Sara T. Th is Land, Th is Nation: Conservation, Rural America and the New Deal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Pielou, E. C. Aft er the Ice Age: Th e Return of Life to Glaciated North America. Chi- cago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Pinney, Th omas. A History of Wine in America: From Prohibition to the Present. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. Pintarich, Paul. Th e Boys Up North: Dick Erath and the Early Oregon Winemakers. Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center, 1997. Piott, Steven L. Giving Voters a Voice: Th e

exploded onto the scene by virtue of its clever packaging and astutely made wines, which seduced sweeter- toothed American consumers with a dollop of residual sugar from a postfermentation addition of grape juice concentrate, the level of which changes with vintage but is usually around 8 grams per litre (g/L). Yellowtail quickly leapfrogged other established Australian brands such as Lindemans and Rosemount, which had been expe- riencing success in the United States, and is now the best- selling Australian wine in America. One of the few people willing to speak to

German wines have always been sweet”; the patience needed to age dry Rieslings to their peak; the high prices of Charta wines, owing partially to the strength of the German mark; and a “f lat market for German premium wines in America” (H. Goldberg 1993). How- ever, influential importers (initially the likes of Schoonmaker and Valckenberg, then Terry Theise and Rudi Wiest) were slow to adopt dry wines, finding few exemplars to their taste until well into the 1990s. The Theise and Wiest portfolios now show substantial shares of trocken wines. In 2013, Theise

. The best-known American winemaker was probably Paul Garrett, who had a genius for promotion and who had, before Prohibition, made his Virginia Dare the most popu- lar wine in America—or so Garrett himself claimed. His headquarters were now in New York, for he still had winemaking properties in the East, where he lived in baronial splen- dor in a house on Bluff Point, commanding a prospect of the vineyards of Lake Keuka in the Finger Lakes region of New York. He remained, however, a part of the Fruit Indus- tries cooperative that he had organized earlier and so was

stabilization fund were lifted. In short, confidence had returned, at least until the next vintage season came around. As it happened, 1951 began the cycle anew: a big harvest and a big inventory led to a new slide in prices. One need not follow these ups and downs in detail, but it should simply be noted here that the outlook in 1950—some five years after the end of the war, when the future of wine in America had been declared to be unboundedly splendid—seemed in truth quite P O S T W A R D I S A P P O I N T M E N T S • 159 discouraging. It looked, indeed, uncomfortably

. Despite what seems to be the free-and-easy tradition of labeling wine in America, nei- ther the trade nor the regulatory authorities were ever indifferent to the question, though there was more legislation than enforcement. California, for example, passed the Pure Wine Law in 1887, providing for the use of a stamp or label to certify that the wine had met the o‹cial standards. The law was violently opposed, and soon after its passage its key provision, the requirement for a stamp of purity, was overturned on appeal: a few wineries continued to use the stamp, but they

scape- goats for the colonies’ failure. In France, the colonists’ failure to make wine in America is often ascribed to a lack of tradition. Although it is true that the English lacked experience in viticulture, biology and entomology were proba- bly more to blame. The imported grapes succumbed to local pests, and the abundant local grapes made undrinkable wine. Vitis vinifera has been the vine for European wine grapes since before Roman times. This plant provided the leaves that Dionysus twined in his hair and the seeds that have been found in Egyptian tombs. The thin

from Bordeaux to Berlin than from Napa to New Jersey. Consumers, too, have to negotiate local and state laws that can ban the sale of alcohol outright or restrict sale not only by the age of the purchaser but also by time, day of the week, and location. Although some of these barriers are being pruned like a vine after har- vest—or, in some cases, uprooted altogether—their roots are deep, and change has been only recent. CHAPTER 4 Baptists and Bootleggers The Strange Bedfellows of American Wine 67 PROHIBITION’S VICIOUS HANGOVER Part of the resistance to wine in

” for a mere $500. Armed with a commission from the governor of Califor- nia and its legislature, Haraszthy toured Europe’s wine regions, including “Dijon, Gevrey, Chambertin, and Clos Vougeot,” returning in 1862 with cuttings from some unknown number of “varieties.” In A History of Wine in America, Thomas Pinney observes that Haraszthy first claimed to have imported 1,400 varieties, then reduced his claim to 300, and finally published a catalog oªering 492 varieties for sale— including pinot noir. But Haraszthy’s venture was surrounded by a jumble of confu- sion

can seem like an outlier. It’s possible to ripen or burn the exotic elements out of the wine, but such practices may be some sort of Faustian bargain: without that exotic element, Syrah would seem to be missing its soul. Along with Pinot Noir, Syrah is arguably the most soulful red wine in American soil. Syrah frequently has impressive fruit, but to judge Syrah on fruit alone is to sell its merits short. It is the variety’s most consistent feature: a dark, plummy, deep core of blue-black fruits, currant, cassis, blueberry, mulberry, plum, or the darkest of