numerous references to wine, could separate wine from
beer and spirits. Court cases challenging the prohibitory state laws in the
latter part of the nineteenth century were brought by brewers mostly, dis-
tillers occasionally, but rarely by wineries. Wine made up a very small part of
the overall liquor market, and much of it was reserved for the elite.
Today, wine is increasingly popular and affordable in America. Wine ap-
preciation is growing nationwide. Yet there is no national consensus—nor
will there be one anytime soon—on the role of wine in American society
drink. And yet another revealed that both rum and Spanish brandy are known as
aguardiente, which, being translated, means “water for the teeth.”4 The authors of House-
hold Guide to Wines and Liquors (an instance that Schoonmaker missed) informed their
readers that Catawba was “produced from Muscat grapes.”
There were some sane voices in the midst of this foolish hubbub: Schoonmaker him-
self, with Tom Marvel, published the Complete Wine Book; Julian Street’s Wines was reli-
able; and Philip Wagner’s AmericanWines and How to Make Them—published just as Re-
to an institution,
it would have to be to the Huntington.
Finally, I should like to make grateful acknowledgment to a writer personally
unknown to me, Philip Wagner. For more than fifty years he has been writing
gracefully, originally, and authoritatively about Americanwines and vines, and no
one else now living can have done so much through his writings to foster an intelli-
gent interest in wine among Americans.
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quality, European-style wines.
But in the late 1960s, two startling events brought revolutionary change virtually
overnight. The first was a chance encounter between author Leon Adams, making a visit
to the Yakima Valley in 1966, and Victor Allison, the manager for AmericanWine Grow-
ers, who had begun to take notice of California varietal wines and experiment with a few
of their own. As Adams explains, he happened across just a single memorable Washing-
ton wine on that trip, a rosé of grenache, made by Associated Vintners (A/V), a group of
a seller but one who has to do with
the entire process of winegrowing, as in the phrase now common on
Americanwine labels, "vinted and bottled by." Vintage is an instance
of the opposite process of narrowed meaning: originally vintage meant
harvest, but it is now generally understood to mean "good harvest," as
in "vintage year" or "vintage wine."
b. French terms still felt to be alien but in fact used by writers in English
include: appellation, brut, cave, cepage, chai, chambrer, chaptali^ation, climat,
clos, cru, cuvage, cuvee, eleveur, marc, negotiant
wine world seems to be that we might have lost some-
thing. In 2015, noted Americanwine commentator
Matt Kramer published a short book titled True Taste:
The Seven Essential Wine Words. In it he prompts us
to move away from a focus on flavor identification, to
more global, thoughtful, subjective terms that capture
the qualities of wine better. “Too many tasting notes
now offer little more than a string of fanciful flavor
descriptors with the judgment revealed only in the
score itself—a numerical ‘thank you ma’am’ after the
more energetic ‘slam, bam
told the Napa audience: "Your problem is to identify your wine and
to educate the consumer and the trade to recognize your dry wine be-
cause yours is better."4
Quality improvement and definition, regional identification and pro-
motion, and brand development are never-ending jobs, but it is possible
to distinguish stages within the progression. The first phase of Napa's
post-Repeal identification with wine quality extended to 1938-39, when
the outbreak of war in Europe caused Americanwine marketers on the
Building a Market for Napa Wines 69
East Coast to
Vintage: The Rise of AmericanWine. New York:
———. 2005. The Great Wines of America. New York: Norton.
MacNeil, Karen. 2001. The Wine Bible. New York: Workman.
Malorgio, Giulio, Anna Hertzberg, and Cristina Grazia. 2008. “Italian Wine
Consumer Behavior and Wineries Responsive Capacity.” Paper presented at
the Twelfth International Congress of the European Association of Agricul-
tural Economists, Gent, Belgium, August 26–29.
Manning, Willard G., Emmett B. Keeler, Joseph P. Newhouse, Elizabeth M.
Sloss, and Jeffrey Wasserman. 1989. “The Taxes of Sin: Do
1965, more than twenty years after Winkler and Amerine’s recommenda-
tions had been published, the visible results were so meager that Amerine felt
he had wasted his time on the work: so discouraged was he that, as he later
wrote, he would have left the university for “the right biochemical job” if one
had been offered then.22
The work was having its invisible effects, however; what had been a grad-
ual and scattered development for years at last gathered momentum in the
late 1960s, when, as part of a general change in the fortunes of Americanwine, Californians
Reports. No. 2.
Husmann, George. "AmericanWine and Wine-Making." U. S. D. A. Report,
1867, pp. 154-163.
. "Grape, Raisin, and Wine Production in the United States." U. S.
D. A. Yearbook, 1902, pp. 407-420.
. "The Present Condition of Grape Culture in California." U. S. D. A.
Tear book, 1898, pp. 551-562.
Keller, Matthew. "The Grape and Wine of Los Angeles." U. S. Patent Office
Report, Agriculture, 1858, pp. 344-348.
M'Kee, Andrew. "The Grape and Wine Culture of California." U. S. Patent
Office Report, Agriculture, 1858, pp. 338-344.
McMutrie, William. Report