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gave a great deal of power to interest groups that were focused on mass incarceration. These activist groups arose around the same time the prison newspaper reappeared. The digital world allowed even small voices to be heard far and wide. 206 t h e p r e s s i n p r i s o n We used to teach “mass communication” in colleges. Practically all those academic programs have been renamed and are now referred to by the more amorphous title “media studies.” The reality of today is that effective media no longer address “mass audiences.” Effective media reach niche

- edge and mastery of system codes, as well as the ability to improvise within that system in order to divert existing channels and create new ones. Similar to the bricoleur, the hacker takes a playful tinkerer’s approach to systems and machines. Like the “archetypal hacker selves” of the digital world, West African adventurers employing the Gare du Nord method “have playfully defiant attitudes, which they apply to almost any system in order to repurpose it.”26 Their hacking activities also involve translating the débrouillard techniques they mastered during

games industry. In the early days, the WGA was instrumental in getting writing sessions at conferences like Digital World, the IMA Expo in New York, and the Computer Game Developers Conference . . . which is now the most esteemed game conference in the world.”38 Despite the attitude of some of its members, the WGA was prescient in recognizing the potential that this market brought if its writers could be professionalized within the guild hierarchy. 196 / Screenwriter 2.0 Another important step in the process of legitimating video games for screenwriting

jihadists were aware from the outset that a revolution in Syria would afford them unprecedented opportunities. Preparations in the digital world were already underway before the first large-scale demonstrations the origins—part three: syria 99 in Deraa. In February 2011, al-Nur Media Foundation presented a new essay from jihadist ideologue Abu Abdullah al-Qasimi: “Message to the Proud People of Syria.” Al-Qasimi refers to a Syrian “Islamic revolution jihadist,” Abu Musab al-Suri (imprisoned by the Assad regime at the time), whose “sacrifice and courage demonstrate

harder to detect, prove, or prevent. Uber is not alone in using consumer-sourced rating systems. Across the digital world, consumer- facing platforms like Yelp and Expedia also off er rating mechanisms for evaluating businesses and their workers. For each of these companies, it is impossible to say that the evaluations posted are entirely objective: consumer biases inevitably swing ratings higher or lower. In Uber’s case, this means that drivers are managed according to the biases and whims of consumers, which, in turn, means that blatant passenger dis

, Chicago, or Toronto, with strict quotas on how many cabs can be in oper- ation, Uber prevails when it insists that it’s not a taxi company but rather a technology company; the old rules don’t apply to the digital world. For consumers, Uber disrupted a calcifi ed taxi industry that was chiefl y known for its inadequate service, while Airbnb undid the monopoly that expensive hotels had on tourism by creating a platform for hosts to rent out their spare bedrooms or homes.12 The unrepentant politics of disrup- tion became the social standard for assessing the value of

–73. Jin Wenjian 金文坚. 2014. “Rang qiaopi ziliao zai shuzi hua shijie shixian zhenzheng de tuanju” (“Let Qiaopi Materials Realize True Unity in a Digitalized World”). In Zhongguo lishi wenxian yanjiu hui, eds., 245–52. John, Richard R. 1995. Spreading the News: Th e American Postal System from Franklin to Morse. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Johnson, Paula Doherty. 2007. Diaspora Philanthropy: Infl uences, Initiatives, and Issues. Bos- ton and Cambridge: Th e Philanthropic Initiative, Inc. and the Global Equity Initiative, Harvard University. Jones, Bill. 2005

, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1974. A favorite general reference, despite its age and its outdated information about production processes. The dense and useful content includes an overview of grammar and usage and a long list of prepositional idioms. S E L E C T E D B I B L I O G R A P H Y 493 The Yahoo! Style Guide: The Ultimate Sourcebook for Writing, Editing, and Creating Content for the Digital World. Edited by Chris Barr. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2010. Reference for elements of web style for writers, editors, bloggers, and students, from basics of

extent to which they not only make elements of com- positional design, improvisation, performance, and recreation available to their players, but also map musical attributes onto Caillois’s ludic modes.132 On being awarded a prize by the Multimedia Content Association of Japan, Iwai revealed the wistful desire, akin to that behind the pianistic inflections of Bizet’s Jeux d’enfants, that motivated him: “I’ve been longing for the feeling of my childhood in the digital world.”133 Iwai’s pursuit of paidia via digital chan- nels was matched by Yokoi’s commitment to

member of Parliament for the Scottish National Party, voiced these concerns about Google during a January 2014 debate on an intellectual property bill before the House of Commons in the United Kingdom: “It is a digital behemoth—there is nothing bigger in the digital world—and the gatekeeper for all our content industries. Nothing happens without Google, and nothing can go through its prism without satisfying it in some way” (Wishart 2014, 24). Given Google’s status as a digital behemoth, rights holders have fought a long-running campaign to pressure the search