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was nonetheless a good market in the 1950s, as it was generally prosperous and the war had affected its economy less than Europe’s. Better-off American wine drinkers wanted French wine from Bordeaux above all, and imports from there accounted for two-thirds of all American wine imports from France. One characteris- tic of the American market was a marked preference for wine to be shipped already bottled, even though most wine shipped in the 1950s, whether to domestic or to foreign destinations, was transported in barrels and bottled on arrival. Even in Great

wine slightly later in the century sniffed that Australia pro- duced wines “burdened with the most pretentious names and generally of very mediocre quality.”27 He might have been thinking of the Tahbilk win- ery in Victoria, which had changed its name to Château Tahbilk in 1878. As for the burgeoning American wine industry, the same writer noted that the Stability and Growth: 1800–1870 / 141 wine making there “leaves much to be desired” despite serious attempts to improve it. He acknowledged that some white wines from Ohio and some sweet fortified wines

that the wine from such vines would have the flavor of the American vari- eties that the roots came from. American wines made from some indige- nous varieties had a distinctive flavor often referred to as “foxy”13 and were generally regarded in France as far inferior to any French wine. 162 / Chapter Six As the respective merits and disadvantages of these solutions were being debated and tried in the 1870s, phylloxera broke out of the southern regions where it had been confined for a decade and began to kill vines in a much wider area of central France (see

- ner.”50 But the volume of French wine that found its way into the United States between 1920 and 1933 was a mere trickle compared with American wine imports before Prohibition. Prohibition policies that were introduced by Canada’s provinces during World War I and lasted through to the late 1920s and 1930s (depending on province) reduced French wine exports to that market, while in other parts of the world the absence of French wine during the war helped stimulate local wine production. This was the case in Argentina, Chile, Australia, and South Africa

-term balance between production and demand, some regions focused on the challenges of marketing their wine. In Burgundy, new formulations of terroir were advanced to create a narrative linking the region’s wine not only to the physical environment of the vineyards but also to the histories and cultures of wine making.30 These efforts contributed to making Burgundy the French wine region that is most immediately and closely associated with the idea of terroir, such that the American wine commentator Matt Kramer writes, “One cannot make sense of Burgundy without