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margins. The motels played a combination of stag films and loops, cheaply produced shorts, pirated copies of films then in general release in adult theaters, and, possibly, locally produced material made for the motels—all highly similar to the cheap “homemade videotapes” seen by Joseph Slade in the theaters in Times Square, described in the introduc- tion to this book. A Los Angeles Times reporter described the offerings in 1975: “Some are bootlegged versions of today’s porn classics such as Deep Throat (1972) and Memories within Miss Aggie (1974). Some are old

: Dover, 1970. Hansen, Miriam. Babel and Babylon: Spectatorship in American Silent Film. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991. Heffernan, Kevin. Ghouls, Gimmicks, and Gold: Horror Films and the American Movie Business, 1953–1968. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004. Hilderbrand, Lucas. Inherent Vice: Bootleg Histories of Videotape and Copyright. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009. Bibliography / 253 Hill, Edwin Conger. The American Scene. New York: Witmark Educational Publications, 1933. Hilmes, Michele. Hollywood and Broadcasting: From Radio

209 prologue. naked ladies and ice cream bars 1. I am not the first (nor will I be the last) home video scholar to foreground my own memory and, at times, nostalgia. See Lucas Hilderbrand, Inherent Vice: Bootleg Histories of Videotape and Copyright (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009), xiii–xvi; Caetlin Benson-Allott, Killer Tapes and Shattered Screens: Video Spectatorship from VHS to File Sharing (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013), 23–24; and Daniel Herbert, Videoland: Movie Culture at the American Video Store (Berkeley: University of

’s old pictures to open the same week that the star’s expensive new production opened down the street.2 Hart did not need McIntire’s letter to know that old films were a prob- lem. From 1917 to 1920, he had engaged in a series of legal disputes to exert control over the manner in which his old films circulated. McIntire, in fact, wrote to Hart in response to an advertisement the star had placed in Exhibitor’s Trade Review warning that the “bootleggers of the industry are at it again. Let us hit them right between the horns and prove our gratitude to that motion

for 16mm), fireproofing (16mm safety stock did not present the fire hazards of 35mm nitrate film), and labor (a low-skilled workforce could replace the unionized projectionists).74 The problem was that the very features of 16mm that Hyndman saw as advantageous—the film stock’s transportability and simplicity—also made it dangerous in the wrong hands. A schoolteacher might hide a rented print, claim that the mailman had lost it, and treat friends and students to numer- ous unlicensed viewings. Worse yet, sophisticated collectors and bootleg- gers found ways to

development of, 77, 194–195, 277–278n209; financial figures, 195; saturation of market with outlets, 195 Bloom, Al and Noel, 77 Bloom, Noel, 187, 249n22, 275n168 Blue Magic (1981, dir. Larry Revene), 137, 138, 139, 255n79 Blue Moon Video (phony business front), 186 Blumenthal, Ralph, 9 body/mind split, 17, 18–19, 82, 154, 212n51 Bonanni, Det. Al, 166 Bonica, Joe, 46 Boogie Nights (1997, dir. Paul Thomas Anderson), 14–15, 201–202, 202, 259n134, 279–280nn2–3 bootlegged content. See piracy Bordwell, David, 13 Boston, zoning laws to regulate adult video, 187–188 Bound

’s dis- appearance. Roselli was by 1949 a fi xture in the L.A. underworld, a 64 | Mobsters and Movie Stars convicted bootlegger and longtime Dragna associate who had been indicted along with a handful of other mobsters in 1943 on federal rack- eteering charges for extorting money from fi lm producers in exchange for peaceful labor relations. Among Roselli’s coconspirators were Bioff (who was later revealed to be an FBI informant in the investigation) and Frank (“The Enforcer”) Nitti, Al Capone’s successor with the Chicago Outfi t, who put a bullet through his

Middleton, 30–58. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007. . “In the Flesh: Space and Embodiment in the Pornographic Peep Show Arcade.” Velvet Light Trap 62 (Fall 2008): 29–43. . “Fetish Machines: Peep Shows, Co-Optation, and Technological Adaptation.” In Adaptation Theories, ed. Jillian St Jacques, 47–89. Maastricht, Netherlands: Jan Van Eyck Academie Press, 2011. Hier, Sean P. “Conceptualizing Moral Panic through a Moral Economy of Harm.” Critical Sociology 28, no. 3 (2002): 311–34. Hilderbrand, Lucas. Inherent Vice: Bootleg Histories of Videotape and Copyright

distributors officially licensed 16mm films only to churches, schools, and other sites that would not directly com- pete with movie theaters, studio executives knew that bootleg markets existed where lost or stolen prints were bought, sold, rented, and illegally screened on the country’s rapidly growing number of 16mm projectors. Even the studios that released films to 16mm knew that this technology’s low rental fees made it a “penny business” compared to the “dollar busi- ness” of run-zone-clearance theatrical exhibition (see chapter 2).83 Moreover, the Hollywood

n d o C a m p b e l l My rap career started in a closet with a Radio Shack microphone and bootlegged beats I downloaded from the Internet. Soon after my mix-tape songs gained a little popularity, I came up with a concept for my own song and beat while high in class, obviously not paying any attention to whatever science we were doing. I had plenty of ideas, but the only bad part was I had no tangible outlet to turn my idea into a reality. I was looking for a studio to record in, which began to seem impossible, and a producer to make the beat for this song