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from Bordeaux to Berlin than from Napa to New Jersey. Consumers, too, have to negotiate local and state laws that can ban the sale of alcohol outright or restrict sale not only by the age of the purchaser but also by time, day of the week, and location. Although some of these barriers are being pruned like a vine after har- vest—or, in some cases, uprooted altogether—their roots are deep, and change has been only recent. CHAPTER 4 Baptists and Bootleggers The Strange Bedfellows of American Wine 67 PROHIBITION’S VICIOUS HANGOVER Part of the resistance to wine in

From Prohibition to the Present

List of Illustrations ix List of Sidebars xi Preface and Acknowledgments xiii 1. What Is Wine Politics? 1 2. Soil and Society 7 3. Authenticating Origins 37 4. Baptists and Bootleggers 67 5. Who Controls Your Palate? 103 6. Greens, Gripes, and Grapes 125 7. Celebrating Diversity 145 Notes 149 Bibliography 167 Index 173 Contents


, multilingual, many-layered world of colliding and overlapping cultures: Kingston's tricksters are railway workers and Berkeley beatniks; Erdrich's tricksters go to Jesuit schools, play bingo, and eat Slim Jims; and Morrison's tricksters bootleg liquor, drink Evian, and model for Elle. Though each author draws on a spe- cific tradition, their tricksters revel in the hazardous complexity of life in modern America. Relatively little literary scholarship to date has looked across cultures toward lines of contact and intersection; few works dis- cuss specifically the links

. Bootlegging was common among both blacks and whites in those years. Whites frequently crossed the color line to purchase liquor from blacks. Not surprisingly, the Collins brothers were well-known sources of illicit alcohol among the whites of Mineola. Some older whites in Mineola, who do not want to be named even a half-century later, can recall buying a bottle of moonshine from Son and Itsie Collins.54 Sheriffs usually turned a blind eye on bootleggers, especially if they got a cut of the profits. When arrests were made, white juries in Wood County were reluctant

Prohibition agents to obtain court injunctions to close for up to one year places where liquor was illegally sold, stored, or produced. Persons who manufactured, transported, or sold illegal liquor, known as bootleggers, could be fined up to one thousand dollars (at a time when an average nonfarmworker made less than fifteen hundred dollars per year) and jailed for six months for a first offense, with larger fines and longer jail terms for subsequent offenses. Liability was imposed on anyone selling intoxicating liquor for the results of intoxication, including actual and

- quality, lower- priced ice cream, to their lines. In Los Angeles, the standard pint sold for twenty cents; the lesser one was fifteen. In Boston, the standard pint sold for fifteen to thirty cents while the cheaper one was ten to fifteen cents.5 When customers complained that the ice cream was full of air, some states passed laws prohibiting more than 100 percent overrun or requiring a minimum weight per package.6 The Depression also gave rise to ice cream bootleggers. They provided lesser- grade ice cream to retailers who sold it from refrigerator cabinets bearing

the will of the majority in a matter of personal and social conduct. Tolerance should prevail over winners and losers. Majority rule is also ineffective. Drinkers will find a way to drink, no matter how severe the prohibition. The "iron law of prohibition" teaches that the harsher the law, the more likely it is that the drinker will turn to stronger alcoholic beverages. Throughout American history, drinking has been associated with law- lessness. The vices, which are multifaceted, include public drunkenness, smuggling, bootlegging, adulteration, misbranding

This bibliography excludes state and federal laws, regulations, and other gov- ernment materials, as well as unpublished works, speeches, newspaper articles, and Internet sources, all of which are fully cited in the backnote references. B O O K S Adams, Leon D. The Wines of America. McGraw-Hill, 4th ed., 1990. Allen, Frederick Lewis. Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 1920'$. Harper & Row, id ed., 1964. Allsop, Kenneth. The Bootleggers: The Story of Prohibition. Arlington House, 1961. Amerine, Maynard, ed. Wine Production Technology in the United States

of Prohibition, a sprawling illegal liquor industry existed in Amer- ica, composed of numerous manufacturers and distributors ranging from small family-owned businesses to national criminal syndicates. Domestic pro- ducers by then were accustomed to making alcoholic beverages of varying strengths with whatever ingredients were available. They did not pay taxes, and they reported to no one. Distribution was done by bootleggers, many of whom would continue their businesses after Repeal, relying on their ex- tensive network of contacts. On the retail front