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. The Hidden Realm of Rural Property Crime / 1 / 5 Theft Bootlegging From Robbery to Organized Crime: Gangs, Bandits, and Horsethieves Arson The Economics of Property Crime 5. From Insult to Homicide: Honor, Violence, and Crimes against Persons / 145 Insult and Honor Assaults and Fights Sexual Assault Homicide 6. Questions of Belief: "Superstition," Crime, and the Law / 1 7 6 Foundations of Persecution: Crimes against the Faith Investigating Crime Exploiting Popular Belief Fine Lines: From Superstition to Crime Powers of the Dead 7. Varieties of

by the mid-1930s had become quite popular both as medicine and as a religious sacrament, used in ceremo- nies where peyote priests would openly decry the evils of whisky. At times their condemnations of whisky inspired violence against local bootleg- gers, a few of whom were killed in confl icts with peyotists. As one might expect, this raised the ire of the Navajo bootleggers who dominated Bluff City and the area around Four Corners. By 1936 the bootleggers and peyotists were openly warring with one another, a confl ict that saw boot- legging wiped out on

. Its rural markets regularly attracted pickpockets and horsethieves who plied their trade or sold its fruits, not to mention smugglers, swindlers, forgers, and bootleggers. According to one former justice of the peace, "Our winter bazaars and summer markets are places where petty thieves find the greatest freedom. There they pick pock- ets and steal goods for domestic use for which they otherwise would have to spend money."17 Larger markets served as sites where lucrative frauds might be attempted. At the start of 1916, for example, a Voronezh peasant showed

interpretation of the law. Th ere is further complication by the winter hibernation of hundreds of Mexican beet-fi eld workers in the city. To them boot-legging is not a serious crime. “We believe,” writes Mrs. Anna G. Williams of the Denver Social Service Bureau, “that while rum was a great disturber of domestic peace, it was but a minor cause of poverty. Prisoners in making application for parole used to state that they were intoxicated at the time they committed their crimes. Among the poorer families statistics show greater savings and a higher standard of living

speakeasy in North Beach, the Italian community bordering Chinatown, for a farewell lun- cheon. Drinking bootleg liquor, Gidlow wrote in her journal, helped Chung reveal more about herself.20 The growing intimacy of their rela- tionship was sealed two days later by an exchange of good-bye presents and a kiss. Gidlow reflected: “I believe she was really sorry to see me go and heaven knows she is one of the few I part from with a pang. She gave me a pint bottle of bourbon, Government sealed, 160 proof and—what I value many times more, a spontaneous kiss on the mouth. I had

school early, "unstable moral foundations," alcoholism and bootlegging, an excessive number of holidays, the unavail- ability of rational entertainments, an explosion of rural household divi- sions, and the granting of internal passports to family members without the household head's permission. Within this array of problems, the final pro- vincial report gave particular attention to the growth of alcohol consump- tion and bootlegging that followed the state's 1894 introduction of a liquor monopoly. Together with outwork, this explosion of public drinking was

Capone strolled out of the courtroom. De- spite the impaneling of six grand juries, no other arrests were ever made and the case focused public attention on the inefficacy of local and state government.4 Chicago in 1926 was in the midst of what has been called “the lawless decade.” The great national experiment, Prohibition, had given rise to the bootlegging business, creating an environment in which organized crime could thrive. Rival gangs ran prostitution, gambling, and extortion rackets along with their illegal liquor sales. These enterprises generated vast sums of

; offenses applied to, 2 3 8 - 41 ; by peasant communes, 225-26 , 2 3 6 - 42, 262, 278, 287, 295; statistics for, 237. See also exile; punishment; Siberia Bashilov, P. P., 289 bazaars, 94, 1 2 0 - 2 1 , 282 binding regulations, 64-65 , 223 birch rods, 2 1 1 , 216, 2 18 , 227, 252 blasphemy, 104, 183 Bol'shakov, A. M., 3 1 5 Bolsheviks, 14, 3 1 2 - 1 7 ; law enforcement under, 3 1 3 ; views of toward peasants, bribery, 22, 43, 98, 1 0 1 , 245; in volost' courts, 2 1 2 - 1 5 bootlegging, 25, 32, 34, 63, 75, 1 22 -24 , 282, 303; conviction rates for, 73 -74

, something he did more than once, Coubertin would close with a bow: “Please remember us all to Mrs. Garland. It will be such a delight to have you both in Rome . . .” These types of communications seemed particularly archaic for Billy, given all that was happening just then in Southern California and the United States. The year 1920 saw the adoption of both the Eighteenth and the Nineteenth Amendments—prohibition and women’s suffrage— and the start of a cultural upheaval: the Roaring Twenties. With prohi- bition came speakeasies, bordellos, bootleggers, smugglers and

of total of- fenses. Crimes against persons (insults to honor, threats, and violence) made up 15.9 percent of the caseload, and administrative infractions (mostly passport violations, breaking of fire regulations, and bootlegging) claimed 16.8 percent.33 During 1905, the five land captains of one Riazan' district heard 629 criminal cases, of which 369 (58.7 percent) were property offenses. Nearly half of this number (172 cases, or 27.3 percent of all crimes) involved theft of wood from forests. Infractions of fire safety regula- tions accounted for another 8