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. The Hidden Realm of Rural Property Crime / 1 / 5 Theft Bootlegging From Robbery to Organized Crime: Gangs, Bandits, and Horsethieves Arson The Economics of Property Crime 5. From Insult to Homicide: Honor, Violence, and Crimes against Persons / 145 Insult and Honor Assaults and Fights Sexual Assault Homicide 6. Questions of Belief: "Superstition," Crime, and the Law / 1 7 6 Foundations of Persecution: Crimes against the Faith Investigating Crime Exploiting Popular Belief Fine Lines: From Superstition to Crime Powers of the Dead 7. Varieties of

. Its rural markets regularly attracted pickpockets and horsethieves who plied their trade or sold its fruits, not to mention smugglers, swindlers, forgers, and bootleggers. According to one former justice of the peace, "Our winter bazaars and summer markets are places where petty thieves find the greatest freedom. There they pick pock- ets and steal goods for domestic use for which they otherwise would have to spend money."17 Larger markets served as sites where lucrative frauds might be attempted. At the start of 1916, for example, a Voronezh peasant showed

school early, "unstable moral foundations," alcoholism and bootlegging, an excessive number of holidays, the unavail- ability of rational entertainments, an explosion of rural household divi- sions, and the granting of internal passports to family members without the household head's permission. Within this array of problems, the final pro- vincial report gave particular attention to the growth of alcohol consump- tion and bootlegging that followed the state's 1894 introduction of a liquor monopoly. Together with outwork, this explosion of public drinking was

; offenses applied to, 2 3 8 - 41 ; by peasant communes, 225-26 , 2 3 6 - 42, 262, 278, 287, 295; statistics for, 237. See also exile; punishment; Siberia Bashilov, P. P., 289 bazaars, 94, 1 2 0 - 2 1 , 282 binding regulations, 64-65 , 223 birch rods, 2 1 1 , 216, 2 18 , 227, 252 blasphemy, 104, 183 Bol'shakov, A. M., 3 1 5 Bolsheviks, 14, 3 1 2 - 1 7 ; law enforcement under, 3 1 3 ; views of toward peasants, bribery, 22, 43, 98, 1 0 1 , 245; in volost' courts, 2 1 2 - 1 5 bootlegging, 25, 32, 34, 63, 75, 1 22 -24 , 282, 303; conviction rates for, 73 -74

of total of- fenses. Crimes against persons (insults to honor, threats, and violence) made up 15.9 percent of the caseload, and administrative infractions (mostly passport violations, breaking of fire regulations, and bootlegging) claimed 16.8 percent.33 During 1905, the five land captains of one Riazan' district heard 629 criminal cases, of which 369 (58.7 percent) were property offenses. Nearly half of this number (172 cases, or 27.3 percent of all crimes) involved theft of wood from forests. Infractions of fire safety regula- tions accounted for another 8

being lost little by little, and there are even habitual thieves in some villages." T h e result, he claimed, was a sizable increase in the number of thefts.19 Officials and members of educated society had long argued that igno- rance, immorality, and vice lay at the root of most crimes perpetrated by peasants. As an inspector (revizor) of state peasant settlements noted in the late 1830s, villagers of both sexes were quite simply being ruined by liquor. "In the bootlegging establishments people . . . gather, drink together, en- tertain one a n o t h e r

directly harmed its interests—robbery, bootlegging, and similar offenses. For peas- ants, then, the already poor performance of police and courts only grew worse at a time when the countryside had become far more dangerous. It is little wonder that the years 1 9 0 8 - 1 3 witnessed a sharp increase in the num- ber of bitter complaints from villagers concerning courts, police, and the problem of crime. These complaints, it should be stressed, most commonly concerned crimes perpetrated by peasants against one another. T h e instability brought to village organs of

in Lucand, Le pinard des poilus, 114. 306 / Notes 45. Ibid., 115. 46. Philippe Roudié, Vignobles et vignerons du Bordelais, 1850–1980 (Bordeaux: Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, 1994), 244–45. 47. Ibid., 247–49. 48. Ibid., 248–51. 49. Ellen NicKenzie Lawson, Smugglers, Bootleggers, and Scofflaws: Prohibition and New York City (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2013), 41. 50. Ibid., 105. 51. Daniel Deckers, Im Zeichen des Traubenadlers: Eine Geschichte des deutschen Weins (Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 2010), 85–86. 52. Treaty of Versailles

have tens of thousands of books in twelve languages ready for the mar- ketplace on exactly the same date, 28 June 1890. This was just two months after Stanley finished writing his work.102 Marston’s strategy of simultaneous publication maximized sales by pre- empting bootleg translations and unauthorized versions of the book.103 The first edition, thought to be the largest ever in British publishing his- tory, sold out within a week, as did a fancy two- guinea (£2.1) printing, t h e “ s t a n l e y c r a z e ”1 5 0 whose price exceeded the weekly earnings of