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large tax increase will lead to bootlegging and other crime problems, yet the measure provides no new money to assist law enforcement. 24 Only 5% of the tax revenues would go to research on tobacco-related diseases. 4 1 The cigarette tax is a regressive tax that hits hardest at blue-collar working men and women. 29 This 2.50% tax increase would make Cali- fornia's tobacco tax one of the highest in the country. 44 Llat'l from C . F. KunJ and K . O'Dmnell. T h ,ittitides ,?id O ~ I I I I O ~ S of C,i/iforiii~ I , O ~ C Y S to!or7r(i o ciq~irrtte t

physician-abortionist. New York's medical examiner knew of "75 physicians" who "specialize exclusively in boot-leg abortions." 69 In the mid-1930s one businessman set up a chain of abortion clinics in cities on the West Coast.7° Doctors Gabler, Keemer, and Timanus, of Chicago, Detroit, and Baltimore respectively, were physician-abortionists who performed abortions for tens of thou- sands ofwomen during the 1930s. The decades-long existence of these specialty practices points to the tolerance and accessibility of abortion during these years. Physician

other ideas and activities. In fact, abortion was linked to communism at this time, 164 RAIDS AND RULES and red-baiting entered the medical abortion discourse. The attack on abortion and women who sought to control their own reproduction and lives was the dark side of the era's pronatalist ideology. Raids and Criminal Trials Raids of abortionists' offices became the national norm during the 1940s and 1950s. Raiding the establishments of criminals- like gambling, prostitution, and bootleg liquor businesses-was not an unknown technique to police, but raids

they mobilized to stop the slum clearance. Mathare was just emerging from some of its worst violence since the Emergency. Postelection confl icts fl ared across Kenya in 2007–8 after a disputed presidential election, and Kikuyus and Luos fought and killed hundreds. In Nairobi, Mathare was ground zero for the ethnic violence. As the New York Times reported in 2007: The bloodshed began with a bootlegging dispute, but it has been fueled by ethnic rivalry. The epicenter is Mathare, a cluster of slums with approxi- mately 500,000 people, crammed between downtown