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Even in our jam sessions, I’d catch snakes with a camera or a tape
recorder, bootlegging our gigs, cheating us out of our bread. Our jam ses
sions were our most sacred times, when we could all congregate after a
hard day’s work and feel free to play from our souls. There was no pres
sure of being hired; we could just play whatever we felt with whomever
we wanted. And then somebody would sneak in a tape recorder, while we
were blowing our hearts out for free. So I had to stop and threaten them.
It was enough to make you want to mash somebody’s nose
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Heylin, Clinton. Bootleg: The Secret History of the Other Recording Industry.
New York: St. Martin’s, 1994.
Hilmes, Michele. “The New Materiality of Radio: Sound on Screens.” In Radio’s
New Wave: Global Sound in the Digital Era, edited by Jason Loviglio and
Michele Hilmes, 43–61. New York: Routledge, 2013.
Hoare, C. A. R. “Programming: Sorcery or Science?” Software, IEEE 1, no. 2
Hodgson, Jessica. “Recorded Music Sales Declines
growing problem over the last twenty or thirty years has
been bootlegging—the pirating of albums and live music. Italy is famous
for that. Italian bootleggers have put out several Horace Silver albums,
and albums by other people, too. And you can’t do a thing about it. They
have a law over in Italy that after so many years everything becomes pub-
lic domain. Not so here in the USA. In this country, it takes seventy-five
years for something to become public domain, and even then you can re-
new your rights. But Italy doesn’t honor that; they go by their own law.
on the companion Web site (audio/video file 24), its
own musical entity, an example of what is called a mashup. (Mashups are
also called bootlegs, especially in England, and for some who create these
works it is the preferred term. To avoid confusion with the phenomenon
of unauthorized concert recordings—also called bootlegs—I will use the
166 M U S I C I N 1s A N D 0 s
term mashup.) In its most basic form, what practitioners call A+B, a mashup
combines elements of two different songs, the vocals of one (A) with the
instrumentals of another (B). Mashups
her “enchanting” onstage, though he never
developed the same warm rapport with her as did his brother.6
Perhaps in response to her association with revue, Bolton and Wode-
house, who worked on the show over the summer, conceived the whole
as “a series of block comedy scenes tied together by a plot,” as sketches
Oh, Kay! and Other Works
each ending with “laughs and a final twist.” They also decided to make
bootlegging their theme. The Eighteenth Amendment, ratified in 1919,
had long been good for a gag, and a strong strain of anti-Prohibition-
ism had run through
, twenty-one men, and
The first act of the Philadelphia version opens on a street in Dresden,
as passersby seek a local speakeasy, 21 (“Fatherland, Mother of the
Band”). The action moves to the bar’s quaintly German interior, where
American tourists can order wine and beer as well as soft drinks—the lat-
ter prohibited in Germany. Golo (Jack Buchanan), a bootlegger (of soft
drinks), runs the bar assisted by his gang, including his henchman, Katz
(Manart Kippen), and his moll, Gita (Lyda Roberti). Gita entertains the
crowd (“The Lorelei”), and Golo
previous year by La Monte Young’s
foundational text of repetitive musical minimalism, arabic number (any
integer) to Henry Flynt. Young had dedicated his Composition 1960 #10
(“Draw a straight line and follow it”) to Morris, and in 1961 he recorded
a performance of arabic number in which he rhythmically pounded 1,698
times on a piano with both forearms as loud as he could. As a work that
dramatically foregrounds the labor of composition/performance and just
as theatrically resists commodification (Young’s recording, though widely
bootlegged, has never been authorized for