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ix Criminology has an urban bias. It is easy to forget that much crime occurs in small towns and other rural areas, and that city crime often depends on a rural hinterland for obtaining its illegal product. Th e days of bootleg liquor bring Al Capone to mind, evoking memories of Chicago organized crime and the equivalent in other cities. We forget that the urban bootleg whiskey came from the hills of Appalachia, where hill farmers speaking heavy dialects pro- duced corn whiskey using fuel chopped down with an ax. Rashi Shukla counters the urban bias by

organized crime, whose domestic bootlegging at home contrasted with the industrial scale of alcohol produc- tion and distribution coordinated by organized crime. This chapter estab- lishes an important piece of this book’s puzzle: women’s participation in the 5. Chicago, Crime, and Prohibition Chicago, Crime, and Prohibition / 87 illicit “booze” economy increased to 27 percent of alcohol establishments during Prohibition. Even though organized crime and its restructured pro- tection market largely ignored women’s and families’ localized illicit estab- lishments

economy. Following the introduction of Prohibition, Shaw moved her own business enterprises into bootlegging by exploiting her brothels’ underground passages to move and store booze.27 But even with her prime location in the central city, her operations were isolated from organized crime. Shaw encountered renewed police raids and faced charges of violating Prohibition laws.28 Her declining status as orga- nized crime’s faded queen became evident when she was the victim of a $32,000 jewelry heist in 1921 and when she was fined $500 for violating Prohibition in

; overview of, 18–22, 21tab; research limitation, 38–40 bail payments, 49 beer flats, 94 Beer Wars, Chicago, 109, 118 Bell, James, 123 Bennett, James O’Donnell, 122 betweenness, defined, 29, 148n19 betweenness centralization, defined, 30 bias: gender gap in crime, 13; in law enforcement, 39; in snowball sampling, 147n8 black and tans, 57 Black Belt, Chicago, 60, 77, 124, 125, 125map Blair, Cynthia, 52, 53, 59 Block, Alan, 9 Bloemfon, August, 58 Bloom, Ike, 69, 76 bootleg booze. See Alcohol; Prohibition (1920–1933) bribery. See Corruption brokerage: brokers

established his reputation as a crusading prosecutor, aggressively pursuing gambling and bootlegging ac- tivities as well as bribery in the county bail bonds system.65 As the decade progressed, the downtown reformers gradually succeeded in altering the institutional terrain of Oakland politics. Their reforms pro- vided a new administrative framework for managing urban economic growth and undermined the supply of resources traditionally available to the machine. At the same time, their political victories contributed to a self- reinforcing sequence of class formation among

be responsive. The result was yet another stalemate until Congress reconvened in 1924. American industry and agriculture had comfortably survived the prior year under the 1921 restrictions—sur- vived in part because of technological improvements that reduced the need for labor and in part by employing workers who, in the words of Secretary of Labor Davis, were “bootlegged” into the country by sneak- ing them over the land borders at a rate he estimated to be between one hundred and one thousand a day. The shortage of workers, Davis told Harding, had prompted

mount up once a year?” “But she mounts . . .” “It doesn’t matter. What we’re talking about is whether she knows how to manage that house and care for Cucusa’s santos. Getting all riled up once a year and writhing around on the floor shouting—that is no preparation for all the things you have to handle to host a feast for Babalú Ayé. Enough.” The next day we were back at her house after separate outings. I was look- ing for aguardiente, and she was out to pick up an electrical cable from one of her godchildren in Palo. My bootlegger was a government chemist with a

- ing ourselves; the ongoing social and economic dangers, not to say the hypocrisy of keeping millions as legal Untermenschen in a nation that professes equality and equal opportunity. We have our violent Mexican drug gangs, just as we had our violent (mostly Italian and Jewish) gangs of bootleggers, but significantly, unlike Britain, Spain, or Germany, we haven’t yet experienced any acts of homegrown terrorism, nor, as far as we know, have any terrorist acts elsewhere been launched by American- grown bombers. (The one exception, the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P

bootleggers.”3 The ICC has been especially vulnerable to this phenomenon. Since the establishment of the court in 2002, the Security Council has repeatedly ignored its requests to apply pressure on states to fulfi ll their legal obliga- tions to carry out its arrest warrants. Even when it has come to the mass atrocities in the Darfur region of Sudan, which the Council referred to the ICC in 2005, the fi fteen-member body has failed to issue a single state- ment supporting the ICC’s fi ndings of noncooperation against numerous states that have failed to arrest President

and Spain, and every once in a while said he checked out books in Spanish. William, forever in a good mood and always proactively educating himself, liked to talk to me 186 c i t i z e n s h i p a n d o t h e r s u c h v a g a r i e s about poetry and appeared off and on with books by Pablo Neruda, Gabriel García Márquez, and other Latin American authors. Iván, a heavy-metal fan and an avid conspiracy theorist, shared some bootleg CDs and books with many of us. In short, my cohort of friends spent a lot of time pursuing knowledge they though was