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are extremely few historic maps that are more than five hundred years old. So, even if there were lots of great maps around way back when, they are gone now. Thanks, entropy. 5 Digital Worlds [ 90 ]  P a r t  I I Most  of  the  surviving  examples  of  old  maps  were  made  by  Western  explorers  and  surveyors  in  the  centuries  that  followed  Columbus making his way to the New World. There is something  charming in their imperfections, with coastlines that almost look  right,  but  not  quite,  and  huge  blank  spots.  There  have  been  a  number of

Race, Nationalism, and Tradition in China Today
Risk, Mobility, and the Crafting of Transparency in Coastal Kenya
Anthropological Voyages in Microbial Seas
Communicating Effectively in the New Global Office

Preface ix Acknowledgments xv Part I 1 Historical Curiosity 3 2 Finding Things Out 17 Part II 3 Views from Above 45 4 Scans of the Planet 68 5 Digital Worlds 89 Part III 6 Retracing Our Steps: Migration, Mobility, and Travel 117 7 Food and Farms: How Our Ancestors Fed Themselves 149 8 Living in the Past: Reverse Engineering Ancient Societies 169 Contents Conclusion 9 Archaeology as Time Machine 191 Glossary 205 Notes 209 References 229 Index 251

in Modern Kenya (Cambridge University Press, 1995), coeditor (with M. Priscilla Stone and Peter D. Little) of Commodities and Globalization: Anthropological Perspectives (Rowman and Little- field, 2000), and coeditor (with Marc Edelman) of Anthropology of Development and Globalization: From Classical Political Economy to Contemporary Neoliberalism (Blackwell, 2005). Stefan Helmreich is Associate Professor of Anthropology at MIT. His book Silicon Second Nature: Culturing Artificial Life in a Digital World (University of California Press, 1998) examines the practices


archaeologists think about location and what instru- ments we use to create digital worlds. These technologies have become pervasive across archaeology, but there are a few topics that they have proved especially helpful for, including retracing movement and mobility, working out how our ancestors fed them- selves, and reconstructing the kinds of societies they built. In the end, I discuss some of the challenges of applying geospatial tech- nologies more broadly, beyond the few places that have thus far received most of our attention, to expand and deepen our picture of

cyber-archaeology (e.g., Levy and Jones 2018). Chapter 5: Digital Worlds 1. A good place to start is to ask if GIS is the best tool for the problem at hand (see Lock and Pouncett 2017). 2. Michael F. Goodchild has thought a lot about time and GIS over the years and has come to the conclusion that a “space-time geographic information sys- tem is unlikely to emerge in the near future” (Goodchild 2013, 1072). 3. The technical term for what I am talking about here is geographic visu- alization or geovisualization. See Gupta and Devillers (2017) for an excellent review

in the diGital world E-cash and the increasing importance of digital markets pose problems for central government control over the economy and the behavior of economic actors; they also render borders around national markets and nation-states increasingly permeable—or, perhaps, increasingly irrelevant. In a world where true e-cash is an everyday reality, the basic role of government in a liberal market economy and the relevance of borders and geography will be drastically redefined. While at first glance this concern appears to reflect a traditional break