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(And Why We Should Worry)

improve the service substantially. In addition, the settlement aimed to avoid the threat of the great copyright meltdown outlined above. Clearly both sides saw real risks in forcing a court- room showdown. However, back when Google introduced the library- scanning project as part of the Books program, many copyright critics celebrated the fact that a big, rich, powerful company was taking a stand to strengthen fair use. That never happened. Fair use in the digital world is just as murky and unpredictable as it was the day before the settlement. But what of the

service substantially. In addition, the settlement aimed to avoid the threat of the great copyright meltdown outlined above. Clearly both sides saw real risks in forcing a courtroom showdown. However, back when Google introduced the library-scan- ning project as part of the Books program, many copyright critics cel- ebrated the fact that a big, rich, powerful company was taking a stand to strengthen fair use. That never happened. Fair use in the digital world is just as murky and unpredictable as it was the day before the settlement. But what about the problems

://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/programmes/ click_online/8297237.stm; Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Greener and Smarter: ICTs, the Environment and Climate Change (Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2010), 19. 33. Entertainment & Leisure Software Publishers Association, Chicks and Joysticks: An Exploration of Women and Gaming (London: Entertainment & Leisure Software Publishers Association, 2004); Depart- ment for Children, Schools and Families and Department for Culture, Media and Sport, Safer Children in a Digital World: The Report

libraries com- pletely online, or the French project to digitize all of French literature, fi gure digitaliza- tion as opening up the library, expanding it and creating a new public sphere of informa- tion that will invigorate and revive the embattled, hybrid nation.12 Other metaphors abound, ranging from rhizomes, to digital worlds, to the environ- mental ecological metaphors, to the “Frontier” idea of the Electronic Frontier Founda- tion, to the medical prostheses as psychic formation, to the psychoanalytic dysfunctions as normality (Stone; Turkle), to death

viewers to know who they were and where they were from. They were not afraid to assume a position of authority on either medical issues or cross-cultural analysis. I will return to the signifi cance of this shift in the gardeners’ involvement (from virtuality to self-disclosure) later in this essay, for it resonates with practices in the digital world of the net. Since the project we set out to produce was to grow out of interaction between com- munity members, media makers, and teachers, we agreed to shift the project in format and scope to address this new

York: Random House, 2001); Alan M. Dershowitz, Supreme Injustice: How the High Court Hijacked Election 2000 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001); Ron Suskind, The One Percent Doctrine: Deep Inside America’s Pursuit of Its Enemies since 9/11 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006); Ron Suskind, The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of Paul O’Neill (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004). 4. For a brief description of the costly dynamic tension between anarchy and oligarchy in the digital world, see Siva Vaidhyanathan, The Anarchist in

economically efficient that it will make everything avail- able online; the distinction between a best-seller and a book, DVD, or CD that sells a single copy will be erased. Perhaps the Long Tail, or maybe the mixed metaphor of a long-tailed celestial jukebox, will open a magical gateway to heritage. There’s some truth to these arguments; the digital world can store words, images, and music at less cost than ever before, and the resulting h e r i t a g e 49 longer tail will give knowledgeable consumers an opportunity to buy ob- scure works that might never be “published” in

to take risks on art and artists capable of enriching our ex- pressive life. Could Glenn Gould, Dustin Hoffman, Johnny Cash, or Frank Zappa get into the big time if they were starting out today? Perhaps the digital world, the world of art making and art distribu- tion online, offers a haven for creativity: Are we merely witnessing a transfer of cultural authority from one business model to another? Will the Internet survive as a haven for consumer choice and creative risk? Sure, there’s art all over the Internet. But let’s be a bit cautious. The In- ternet is a

society, with haves and have-nots in the world of culture and communication. It is a fence down the middle of our cultural commons, separating the fully engaged from those left in the dust by lack of knowl- edge, money, or the time required to gain access to new digital tools and new creative choices. After all, to exercise our cultural rights in a digital world we must have the money, knowledge, and time required by culture online. Think about the knowledge needed today. Our arts system wasn’t always complicated, and learning new technologies was pretty straight- 278 c