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53 The most important input used to produce wine is grapes. This chapter focuses on the economic activity of grape growing, which encompasses three important nonsensory aspects of wine production: grape variety, grape location, and viticulture. Basic knowledge of grapes and viticul- ture is necessary for a fuller appreciation of the nature of the complex wine product, as well as an understanding of wine-fi rm behavior and the wine market. As this chapter will highlight, numerous options are avail- able to commercial vineyards and wine fi rms in growing wine

C H A P T E R T H R E E Grape Growing and Winemaking in tke Napa Valley In 1937, Beaulieu signed a marketing agreement with Park & Tilford, an old and respected East Coast importing firm, to supply 25,000 cases of botded wine annually. The contract was a coup for Beaulieu, opening the New York market to Napa wines and putting Beaulieu on a par with top European producers. It represented a tremendous increase in Beaulieu's botded wine sales. The wine was botded by hand, corked by hand, labeled by hand, and loaded by hand into railroad cars. Within a year

An Exploration of the U.S. Wine Industry
From Prohibition to the Present
From the Beginnings to Prohibition
Bold, Bright, and Dry
Chianti Classico
The Search for Tuscany's Noblest Wine

List of Illustrations ix List of Tables xi Preface xiii Acknowledgments xv Introduction 1 1 The Economic Approach to the Study of Wine 11 2 The Wine Product 34 3 Wine Sensory Characteristics 41 4 Grape Growing 53 5 Grape Markets and Supply Cycles 72 6 Wine Production 83 7 Bulk Wine, Private-Label Wine, and Wine Alcohol 105 8 Wine Distribution and Government Regulation 124 9 The Wine Firm 149 10 Wine-Firm Behavior 180 11 The Wine Consumer and Demand 208 12 The Wine Consumer, Quality, and Price 240 13 The Globalization of Wine 276 Conclusion 299


Preface This work began many years ago when the first author, during the course of his research, began to collect bibliographic records of items on grape growing, wine making, and alcoholic bev- erages. This collecting activity led to a number of bibliographic works, including, with L. B. Wheeler, A Check List of Books and Pamphlets on Grapes and Wine and Related Subjects, 1938-1948 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1951) and, with Herman Phaff, Bibliog- raphy of Publications by the Faculty, Staff, and Students of the University of California, 1876


Introduction GRAPE GROWING AND WINE MAKING IN THE EARLY SETTLEMENT PERIOD The American colonies were settled by immigrants from Europe. In most of the countries from which they came, grape growing and wine making were traditional parts of agriculture. A little over fifty years after English colonization began in Virginia, the first laws encouraging grape growing were passed. Enacted in 1639 by the Virginia Assembly, this first legislation required that "all workers upon corns and tobacco shall this spring plant five vyne plants per poi, and the next year