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: advertising for, 45–46; children’s publications promoting, 31, 77; as ever more realistic, 34; mass-production of, 40, 45–46, 201; parental enthusiasm for, 48, 49–50, 51; portraits of children holding, 109, 110–111, 112, 113; prohibitions and repeals of prohibitions of, 24, 31, 57, 93–94; Russo-Japanese War and, 30–31; varying degrees of inclusion of, 35 triple disaster of 2011 (3/11), 172; and disas- ter relief mission of SDF, 9–10, 167; and PR campaigns of SDF, 172–175, 189, 203–207, 210 Tsuji Naoki, 91 2-Channeru, 207–208 Uchū senkan Yamato (fi lm series), 94

the term “queer” may simply refer to the strangeness of the establishment. However, the fact that Chung chose the speakeasy for a private luncheon with Gidlow suggests that she felt more comfortable developing their relationship in that space. In fact, the illegal speakeasies in North Beach and the legitimate bars that opened following the repeal of Prohibition fostered the development of San Francisco’s “queer subcultures.”33 Individuals who identified as homo- sexuals or who were interested in exploring non-normative possibilities frequented these establishments

: Agricultural Adjustment Act (price supports), 121; dam-building projects, 136; Farm Security Administration, 235n70; hop- marketing agreement (price supports), 121–122, 142, 186; migratory workers, plight of, 128, 129–131, 234– 235nn67,68,70,74,75; National Recovery Act, 128–129, 234–235n68; repeal of Prohibition, 113 New England region: commercial hop cultivation and, 17; craft beer revolution and, 174; rum production and, 17 New York State: alcohol production, generally, 17; colonial era cultivation in, 17; European trade fi rms expanding to, 84; harvest time

: interstate  commerce, 164, 266, 305; copyright,  38, 59, 61, 137, 269; due process; 314;  repealofprohibition, 218 United States Copyright Office, 45, 51,  53–54, 323 United States Department of Commerce,  Bureau of Navigation, 151 United States Department of Justice, 118,  149, 159–160, 163, 204, 302, 305, 314,  316, 318–319; Bureau of Investigation  (later FBI), 115, 129, 149, 163, 203 United States Department of the Treasury:  Internal Revenue Service, 217, 219;  Prohibition Bureau, 150, 202, 204;  Secret Service, 91, 218 Society of St. Tammany. See Tammany Hall

• 177 As the movement widened, along with its rising popularity it confronted signifi cant legal and tax hurdles that craft brewers had to overcome. By 1978, there remained only eighty-nine total breweries in the United States, owned by half as many companies.15 Big beer had a fi rm grasp on the American beer industry as it continued to conglomerate and take advantage of a legally man- dated marketing and distribution system that dated to the repeal of Prohibition. Federal law determined that alcohol production and sale occur within a three-tiered system. Th is

Century Magazine. He found that while western “wets,” those who favored repeal of Prohibition, appeared to have great infl uence, the dry forces could count on getting more people to vote to keep Prohibition going. His descriptions here, especially those of the Pacifi c coast and Montana, hint at the complexity of the issue. What western groups would you expect to be vociferous wets? Which would you expect to be dry? Why do you think the wets were unable to muster strength at the ballot box, despite their outspokenness? How does Milton’s account of Prohibition

article mentioned that nearly half a billion dollars of taxes would be collected within a year from the beer industry, and it estimated that, in New York state alone, the Cullen-Harrison Act opened the door for forty thousand jobs, including “19,000 directly in the breweries, 221,000 in cooperage, lithogra- phy, bottle making, [and] lumbering.”6 Th ese numbers did not even refl ect the immediate growth of the hotel and restaurants industries. It made sense, then, that as the year progressed, Roosevelt promoted broader repeal of Prohibition, citing economic

134 the willamette valley hop industry faced its greatest crisis in the mid–twentieth century. Aft er an extended period of success for hop growers that included global praise and one of the state’s most vibrant folk occasions, downy mildew threatened to take it all away. While growers increased acreage upon the repeal of Prohibition, the quality of the crops slowly began to deteriorate along with reduced yields. Adding further uncer- tainty were the various marketing agreements that limited farmers’ abilities to expand production or enter into the business

Pacifi c Northwest to attend meetings with the hop growers and brewers who were intently interested in the developments in Corvallis. Additionally, the two off ered radio programs, published scientifi c papers, and contributed popular articles to the Pacifi c Hop Grower, all of which kept hundreds of regional farmers and brewing-industry professionals in the loop and abreast of the hop research agenda at the experiment station.13 Because the hop-breeding program emerged around the same time as the repeal of Prohibition and the revival of American brewing, the

consumption in France is astonishing because it ran directly counter to so many trends in the interwar period. As President Franklin Roosevelt was warning about a return to the bad old days after the repeal of Prohibition, the French government was urging its citizen to drink, drink, and drink more wine. Yet for all the effort and cost, the campaign foundered on the economic realities of the Depression, which depressed consumers’ real income. During the 1920s, adult per capita wine consumption averaged 117 liters (30.9 gallons) a year in France; in the 1930s