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, of the Hotel Somerville, the first hotel offering first- class accommodations for blacks in the city. The hotel went under after the stock market crash the following year and reemerged in its more influential incarnation as the Dunbar Hotel. The Central District really began to take off after the repeal of Prohibition in 1933, when beer gardens, nightclubs, and after-hours clubs could operate under condi- tions far more conducive to the music scene. The election of reform mayor Fletcher Bowron in 1938 put pressure on the city’s unrestrained nightlife and more

live music — a glimmer of hope in the unemployment morass. That same hopeful- ness, however, led to a series of events that triggered a collision between Local 6 and its counterpart, Local 648, the union that had been founded ten years earlier to serve the San Francisco Bay Area’s African American musicians. T H E BAT T L E OF T H E U N IONS Local 6 wasted little time after the repeal of Prohibition to begin enforcing wage standards in San Francisco’s nightclubs.21 Even before the national ratifica- tion process was completed on December 5, 1933, the local’s board

/ Record Giants Blink for local theaters. Finally, the work just dried up. As soon as talkies began to take hold, the Hollywood studios started to hire their own orchestras. My dad heard about opportunities in the studio orchestras out there, so he packed up our family and moved us to Los Angeles.”34 The trend toward recorded music only accelerated with the repeal of Prohibition in 1933. As the number of bars proliferated, so did the number of jukeboxes installed. The modern commercial coin-operated machines had fi rst emerged in 1927 after electronic microphones

Cubans or other Latin Americans in the absence of suitable and will- ing local whites” (Craton and Saunders 1998, 245). I will return to explore these issues and trends in much greater detail in chapter 3. Th e bust following the repeal of Prohibition was sustained and intense, a severe economic depression (matched worldwide, in this case) lasting from 1933 until the beginning of World War II, aft er which tourism fi nally came to occupy the central place in the Bahamian economy toward which it had been moving since the late nineteenth century. Th e years between

center of American popular music. Record sales slowly began to rebound and then exploded in the late 1930s, and the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 brought masses of people into dance halls. Swing as a popular movement was facilitated by a growing capital in- vestment in the culture industry and the increasing proliferation of mass communications technologies. Jazz historians generally point to the highly acclaimed, nationwide broadcast of Benny Goodman’s August 21, 1935, performance at Los Angeles’s Palomar Ballroom as the symbolic begin- ning of the “swing era.” This

6–7 Copland and Bernstein’s apparent sexual liaison (ca. the late 1930s) see the anecdote in Meryle Secrest, Leonard Bernstein: A Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994), 96. 24. For more than three decades following the repeal of Prohibition, the State Liquor Authority, the police, the military, and the courts in New York imposed “disorderly conduct” prohibitions on bar patrons deemed homosex- ual. This “amounted to a virtual ban on the public assembly of gay men and women” (347): see Chauncey, Gay New York, 337–47. For an excellent and lucid summary of Foucault