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Chicago, Illinois, 1929. 114 10. Women-involved and organized crime–involved percent of sex work establishments in Chicago, 1900–1919 and 1920–1933. 126 11. Patrons drinking after the repeal of Prohibition at Hotel Brevoort’s world-famous Crystal Bar, Chicago, Illinois, 1933. 129 tables 1. Primary and Secondary Sources in the Capone Database 21 2. Properties of the Chicago Organized Crime Network, 1900–1919 and 1920–1933 29 3. Sex Work and Alcohol Establishments with Named Proprietors, 1900–1919 and 1920–1933 36 4. Men, Women, and Their Relationships in

213 Index ACT UP, 119–21 Against Equality movement, 105 AIDS activism, 119–21 Akerlof, George, 25 alcohol use, normalization of: Insider strategies for normalization, 123–26, 144–45; overview of, 122–23; Pauline Sabin and the repeal of Prohibition, 125–38, 134fig; Wickersham Commission report, 129, 132 alliance, strategy of, 49 American National Election Study (ANES), 47 Amish groups, 14–15, 16, 27, 168n16 apathy, emotional responses of deviants, 56, 58 appeasement, emotional responses of deviants, 56, 58–59 Aryans, 22–23, 24 assimilationists, LGBTQ

what seemed impossible only five years prior. Fortuitous aspects of political opportunity certainly played an important role in the repeal of Prohibition, such as the Great Depression and the subsequent increased need for revenue by state and federal governments, along with the crea- tion of (legitimate) jobs for those in industries connected to alcohol production, distribution, and consumption. At the same time, opportunities do not translate into success without motivated, capable individuals who can effectively take advantage. The WONPR’s political strategy

examining the fi nancial history of mass incarceration. Beginning with the era of Prohibition and its repeal following the Great Depression, the book examines an era of penal parsimony and public nonpunitivism seldom covered by current mass incarcera- tion scholars. Th e repeal of Prohibition is framed here in the context of public despair of the futile expenditures in the losing federal battle against organized crime. Th is trend proceeded through the New Deal years of economic recovery, leading to small federal expenditures in crime control justifi ed by war

of her husband’s income with either a bootlegger or a saloon-keeper operating legally. I am convinced that as far as the women of the country are concerned, prohibition has come to stay.”79 Willebrandt’s universal declarations for women under Prohibition, as well as her predictions, were wrong, as the Prohibition law had not “come to stay.” Women’s political organizing was as responsible for the repeal of Prohibition as it had been for its introduction. Chaired by Pauline Morton Sabine of the Morton Salt family, the Women’s Organization for Prohibition

departure point for historical accounts of mass incarceration is the rise in crime rates and punitive advocacy during Richard Nixon’s fi rst presidential campaign. For the purposes of this book, however, it is more useful to start with the repeal of Prohibition and the Great Depression, which present important par- allels to the 2008 recession-era narrow coalitions and cost-related antipunitive campaigns I am analyzing. THE GREAT DEPRESSION AND PROHIBITION Making economic arguments for criminalization or decriminalization is not a new phenomenon, and the campaigns

the death penalty, the transi- tion to life without parole nationwide will likely be irreversible, especially if humonetarian logic leads states to repurpose death rows and restructure their array of prisons. I expect that cost-based legalization of substances in general, and marijuana in particular, will also be an irreversible trend. Here it is possible to rely on a histori- cal example. Th e repeal of Prohibition, largely possible because of arguments of enforcement costs, creation of an underground economy, and the potential of rev- enue enhancement via

with Kathleen Rooney.” Brooklyn Rail, February 5. http://brooklynrail.org/2014/02 /books/the-brutality-of-believing-mattilda-bernstein-sycamore-in-conversation -with-kathleen-rooney. Root, Grace C. 1934. Women and Repeal. New York: Harper & Brothers. Rose, Kenneth D. 1997. American Women and the Repeal of Prohibition. New York: New York University Press. Ruiz, Jason. 2008. “The Violence of Assimilation: An Interview with Mattilda aka Matt Bernstein Sycamore.” Radical History Review 100: 236–47. Ryan, Caitlin, and Judith Bradford. 1999. “Conducting the National

Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution was Chapter 9 | Alcohol Abuse 257 repealed. Once again, the legal spigots for alcohol were open in the United States. The Medicalization of Problem Drinking While the Prohibition temperance movement drew support from Rush’s con- cern with the eff ects of heavy drinking on society, it paid little attention to his description of alcoholism as a disease. In the decades following the repeal of Prohibition, however, the disease model of alcoholism grew to dominate Amer- ican discourse about problem drinking. One of the pivotal

Woman’s Christian Tem- perance Union in International Perspective, 1880–1930 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014), 232. 28. Tyrell, Woman’s World/Woman’s Empire, 231–41. 29. Kenneth D. Rose, American Women and the Repeal of Prohibition (New York: New York University Press, 1997), 159n63; Jessica R. Pliley, Policing Sexuality: The Mann Act and the Making of the FBI (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014), 21. 30. Ruth Bordin, Woman and Temperance: The Quest for Power and Liberty, 1873–1900 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981), 3