minor offender compared to some of Oakland’s other Orthodox
“wine rabbis,” who, unlike Paper, sold mostly to non- Jews.* One rabbi, who
made deliveries from a horse- drawn “laundry wagon,” included among his
c o s m o p o l i t a n s224
* In Oakland, as in other cities, “Orthodox bootlegging” was considered scandalous
by Reform leaders. Temple Sinai’s Rabbi Rudolph Coffee used grape juice rather than
wine to avoid even the suggestion of impropriety.
customers a few influential Irish politicians,123 which kept the police far
from his door.
) nation.55 In the area
of foreign policy this applied at least for some fundamentalists to the
American entry into the world war and, above all, plans to join the
League of Nations. In domestic policy political decline was evident in
the corruption of urban party apparatuses, in the circumvention or
planned repealofProhibition, and in efforts to shed the public schools
of their Christian character.
Considerable segments of the fundamentalist camp initially opposed
the United States' entry into the war. They modified this position only
after America had become a