, in return for which the god gave him the vine
and the secret of winemaking. He shared his wine with his neigh-
bors, who murdered him, believing that he had given them poison.
Dionysus then set him among the stars as Bootes, the Ploughman,
to drive the Seven Plowing Oxen.
32. Eurytion was a Centaur who tried to rape Hippodamia at
her marriage to Pirithous and thus provoked the legendary battle
of the Lapiths and the Centaurs that Ovid describes in the Meta-
morphoses, book XII.
33. Ulysses got the Cyclops Polyphemus drunk so that he could
blind him and then escape
the day off (9–16); the setting is near Formiae,
with the rural shrine of the goddess Marica forming part of the landscape
(6–8). Like the other addressees just mentioned, Lamia is praised for his
devotion to rustic otium, rather than his contributions to or involvement
with the Roman state.
Of all the poems in which Horace praises a life of rustication and,
implicitly, quietism, perhaps the best known is Odes 1.4, addressed to L.
Sestius Quirinalis. Sestius was from Cosa, where his family owned a
winemaking and exporting business that left its mark all over
to puff it-
self up in adolescence” fromDe or. 88. Brut. 288 (quasi de musto ac lacu fervidam orationem
fugiendam) lies behindQuintilian’s language (as doesDe or. 3.103, which provided the com-
bination of austere and decocted in another image drawn from winemaking). In the Brutus
Cicero had been talking of avoiding unfermented speech, an image that Quintilian transfers
to the person of the young speaker and the need for his slow maturation.
50. Quintilian prefers joy and ingenium to iudicium in this age; e.g., 2.4.14: Aliter autem
alia aetas emendanda est, et
us once again to
understand this language. Given the limitations of ancient technology, bad wine
was an almost inevitable by-product of the process of winemaking: “The wine was
not protected adequately in store against the summer heat, and inefficient sealing
of the jars permitted oxidation, turning the wine into ‘sour wine’ (oxos), or bacte-
rial infection, which made it ‘malodorous’ (ozarios).”122 Fermenting or aging wine
had therefore to be regularly inspected to make sure that it was not “turning.”123
At the third-century estate of Appianus, in the Fayum
stories of ancestral polytheistic practice, and over time civic rites reflected
changes in the polis itself.
While rooted in the ancient rhythms of viticulture and winemaking, the
autumn Oschophoria and the Anthesteria in the spring also served the needs
of residents in the urban center of Athens. Like all Dionysian celebrations,
these two civic festivals allowed worshippers to break free from some of the
normal social barriers that kept citizens and residents highly stratified and
segregated within the polis: on these days women, slaves, and children could