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us once again to understand this language. Given the limitations of ancient technology, bad wine was an almost inevitable by-product of the process of winemaking: “The wine was not protected adequately in store against the summer heat, and inefficient sealing of the jars permitted oxidation, turning the wine into ‘sour wine’ (oxos), or bacte- rial infection, which made it ‘malodorous’ (ozarios).”122 Fermenting or aging wine had therefore to be regularly inspected to make sure that it was not “turning.”123 At the third-century estate of Appianus, in the Fayum

stories of ancestral polytheistic practice, and over time civic rites reflected changes in the polis itself. While rooted in the ancient rhythms of viticulture and winemaking, the autumn Oschophoria and the Anthesteria in the spring also served the needs of residents in the urban center of Athens. Like all Dionysian celebrations, these two civic festivals allowed worshippers to break free from some of the normal social barriers that kept citizens and residents highly stratified and segregated within the polis: on these days women, slaves, and children could join with