? (Frankfurt: Brandes and Apsel / Südwind, 2000);
Dietrich Thränhardt and Michael Bommes, eds., National Paradigms of Migra-
tion Research (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht University Press, 2010).
See also ch. 6.
71. See especially Simone Cinotto, Terra soffi ce, uva nera: Viticoltori
piemontesi in California prima e dopo il Proibizionismo (Turin: Otto, 2010),
translated by Michelle Tarnopolski as Soft Soil, Black Grapes: The Birth of Ital-
ian Winemaking in California (New York: New York University Press, 2012).
72. The editors of the Ellis Island series were
excavated at the site in the year 2003 alone.
The Shiji suggests that the legendary Han general Zhang Qian introduced
grapes to China from Fergana in 128 BC.9 When he returned from his arduous
Figure 16. Sketch of a textile with a design that art historians
have interpreted as grape clusters, unearthed from tomb 01,
room 01, of the Sampula cemetery of Xinjiang, ca. first century
BC. Adapted from Jiang et al, 2009.
180 Artifacts of the Silk Road in Your Kitchen
expedition to the west, he supposedly made reference to winemaking and
claimed that wealthy vineyard owners
, M ac h i n e s , a n d Fa r m L a b or • 103
largest sector under cultivation by the end of the 1880s, with more than
twenty-fi ve million trees in orchards by 1900. Th e boosters dubbed California
“the fruit basket of the nation,” and their advertisements were true. Before
1900 grapes (for winemaking) and cherries, plums, peaches, pears, and apri-
cots had made their entrance as major crops. In the new century citrus
orchards soon took the leading spot in acreage.
Th ree decades earlier, immigrant journalist Charles Nordhoff had fore-
told the reasons
early years of the Republic there were disputes as
Catholics tried to preserve their lower rates of taxation by refusing to
pay for the new government schools. In Cave Gully much of the tax
resistance was simpler: people simply refused to pay the land tax, say-
ing that the land belonged not to them but to the church, whether or
not it actually did.54
All these disputes came to a head in Cave Gully over the issue of
Franciscan winemaking. The fi rst missionary had come to Shanxi to
look for grapes and missionaries had been making wine for the mass in
covered by neat rows of vines that reached all the way to
a small river in the valley below. I realized that wine regions
do not instigate wars. Volker Schätzel was proud not only of
the family winemaking tradition, but also of the progressive
political ideals that have prevailed over the past two centuries
in many of the German regions west of the Rhine—traces, per-
haps, of the liberating eff ect the French Revolution and Napo-
leon had on this part of Germany. They not only helped this
family buy land, but also infl uenced their political beliefs.
explicitly about common wine-making techniques in France at the
beginning of the nineteenth century.
Although much of the advice might seem fairly conventional, we should
assume that Chaptal and Cadet-de-Vaux wanted it disseminated because it
was not general practice at the time. Cadet-de-Vaux wrote in his introduc-
tion addressed “to vignerons” that although making wine was one of the
first skills (arts) mastered by humans, “it is still in its infancy. . . . It is
scarcely a century since perceptible progress has been made in the famous
estates; in these vineyards
children who had historically picked grapes by hand. There was also a general
drive for better quality, which meant renovating wine-making facilities: buy-
ing gentler presses, replacing or renovating concrete fermentation vats and
sometimes installing stainless steel tanks, and buying new, better, and often
smaller barrels. All of this was expensive, too expensive for hundreds of thou-
sands of small-scale vignerons, but the cost was manageable when shared
among dozens, scores, or hundreds of them organized into cooperatives.
Although wine from cooperatives is
innovative efforts are currently under way, including the
Napa River Flood Protection Project, which is guided by Living River
principles;39 Napa Green certification for sustainable winemaking; and
the integrated river restoration by farmers in the Rutherford Reach
Restoration Project. This Atlas was developed at the behest of a broad
array of organizations involved in these and related projects—including
Friends of the Napa River, Napa Valley Vintners, the Napa County
Resource Conservation District, the Napa County Flood Control and
Water Conservation District