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A History

, Château, 70, 108, 112, 136, 138, 143, 144, 183, 202, 217 La Tour-Carnet, Château, 7, 145 Lattara, 10, 11, 12 Lattes, 10, 11, 12 Laurent-Perrier (champagne house), 185 lead, used in winemaking, 116, 118 Le Gendre, Pierre, 42 Léoville-Lascazes, Château, 223 Le Paulmier, Julien, 98–9 Le Play, Frédéric, 175–6 Le Roy, Baron, 217 L’Étoile, 282 Libourne, 41, 43–4, 72table, Lichine, Alexis, 254 Liebault, Jean, 96 Limoges, 86 Limoux, 84, 86 Livorno, 68, 80 Locke, John, 88 Loire Valley, 18, 36, 112, 116, 151, 162, 244 Loire River, 14, 18, 22, 25, 35, 66, 81 London, 45, 46, 47

explicitly about common wine-making techniques in France at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Although much of the advice might seem fairly conventional, we should assume that Chaptal and Cadet-de-Vaux wanted it disseminated because it was not general practice at the time. Cadet-de-Vaux wrote in his introduc- tion addressed “to vignerons” that although making wine was one of the first skills (arts) mastered by humans, “it is still in its infancy. . . . It is scarcely a century since perceptible progress has been made in the famous estates; in these vineyards

children who had historically picked grapes by hand. There was also a general drive for better quality, which meant renovating wine-making facilities: buy- ing gentler presses, replacing or renovating concrete fermentation vats and sometimes installing stainless steel tanks, and buying new, better, and often smaller barrels. All of this was expensive, too expensive for hundreds of thou- sands of small-scale vignerons, but the cost was manageable when shared among dozens, scores, or hundreds of them organized into cooperatives. Although wine from cooperatives is

19 (2008): 1–17. 16. In Tasting French Terroir: The History of an Idea (Oakland: University of California Press, 2015), Thomas Parker examines the idea of terroir up to the end of the eighteenth century. 17. Jamie Goode and Sam Harrop, Authentic Wine: Toward Natural and Sustainable Winemaking (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011), 145. 18. This is a general theme of Michael Steinberger, Au Revoir to All That: Food, Wine, and the End of France (New York: Bloomsbury, 2010). Notes / 311 19. Nicolas Marty, L’invention de l’eau embouteillée

river, 410; Nineveh, 112; Ra‘se Dastakan, 284; Shiraz, 301; Shiraz ruins, 305–6; spring water, 244; Surat, 189; Turkish canal, 409. See also cisterns; washing practices weapons. See arms wedding: Persian, 353–54. See also marriage White Bridge, 410 wine: aga getting drunk, 102; Armenian toasts, 396; Basra, 136; Daman, 161; French ships, 419; Isfahan, 328–29, 330; Islamic/Turkish prohibition on, 44, 72, 111, 330; Kong, 8, 146–47, 302; palm, 201n, 202; Shiraz, 302, 304 winemaking: Aleppo, 72–73; Basra, 136; Julfa, 330; Nineveh not allowing, 114 “the Wise Men’s” fortress

wines with the appellation’s name. This highlights an important characteristic of the AOC system: it was developmental rather than static. Over time, the boundaries of appellations, lists of permitted grape varieties, and minimum alcohol levels have changed. In the few years between the application of the AOC law in 1936 and the invasion of France in 1940, however, the work of the comité focused on giving initial approval to appellations and defining authorized vineyard and wine-making practices. Coming into force just as the Depression began to ebb and consumer

driver of viticulture and winemaking in much of the country, because of the role that Christian ideology, imagery, and ritual give to wine. A river of wine runs through the New Testament, where it is the most commonly cited beverage—beer is not mentioned, and water appears more often as a medium for spiritual cleansing than as a drink. The first miracle that Jesus performed was to turn water into wine, and wine represents the blood of Christ in the sacrament of Communion. A common medieval genre of painting, Christ in the winepress, depicts him bearing a cross

merchants were shipping some sixty thousand nine-hundred-liter (238-gallon) barrels of wine annually, double or triple the number of a century earlier.21 The core period of Dutch influence on Bordeaux’s wine industry, from about 1635 to 1672, saw important transformations in the region’s vine- yards, wine styles, and production. But the dominant position of the Dutch was contested by French merchants who alleged that they engaged in cor- rupt business and wine-making practices. Two merchants, (Henri de?) Canasilles of Bordeaux and Jean Eon of Nantes, wrote that while

, but those for husked are compatible (I exclude glutinous rice and wine-making rice). Th e data include one extraordinary famine price of 8000 cash per shi from winter 1779–80 (there were big distri- butions of relief grain in Sichuan in 1778–79; see Will et al., 1991: table 13.1). Under normal circumstances, grain prices peaked in summer and fell aft er the autumn harvest, to rise 432 Notes again in winter (Will, 1990: 182–84). Th e food value of husked rice was double that of the same volume of unhusked (the ratio varies for other grains), but the price