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excavated at the site in the year 2003 alone. The Shiji suggests that the legendary Han general Zhang Qian introduced grapes to China from Fergana in 128 BC.9 When he returned from his arduous Figure 16. Sketch of a textile with a design that art historians have interpreted as grape clusters, unearthed from tomb 01, room 01, of the Sampula cemetery of Xinjiang, ca. first century BC. Adapted from Jiang et al, 2009. 180 Artifacts of the Silk Road in Your Kitchen expedition to the west, he supposedly made reference to winemaking and claimed that wealthy vineyard owners

, M ac h i n e s , a n d Fa r m L a b or • 103 largest sector under cultivation by the end of the 1880s, with more than twenty-fi ve million trees in orchards by 1900. Th e boosters dubbed California “the fruit basket of the nation,” and their advertisements were true. Before 1900 grapes (for winemaking) and cherries, plums, peaches, pears, and apri- cots had made their entrance as major crops. In the new century citrus orchards soon took the leading spot in acreage. Th ree decades earlier, immigrant journalist Charles Nordhoff had fore- told the reasons

early years of the Republic there were disputes as Catholics tried to preserve their lower rates of taxation by refusing to pay for the new government schools. In Cave Gully much of the tax resistance was simpler: people simply refused to pay the land tax, say- ing that the land belonged not to them but to the church, whether or not it actually did.54 All these disputes came to a head in Cave Gully over the issue of Franciscan winemaking. The fi rst missionary had come to Shanxi to look for grapes and missionaries had been making wine for the mass in the area

covered by neat rows of vines that reached all the way to a small river in the valley below. I realized that wine regions do not instigate wars. Volker Schätzel was proud not only of the family winemaking tradition, but also of the progressive political ideals that have prevailed over the past two centuries in many of the German regions west of the Rhine—traces, per- haps, of the liberating eff ect the French Revolution and Napo- leon had on this part of Germany. They not only helped this family buy land, but also infl uenced their political beliefs. Nazi

innovative efforts are currently under way, including the Napa River Flood Protection Project, which is guided by Living River principles;39 Napa Green certification for sustainable winemaking; and the integrated river restoration by farmers in the Rutherford Reach Restoration Project. This Atlas was developed at the behest of a broad array of organizations involved in these and related projects—including Friends of the Napa River, Napa Valley Vintners, the Napa County Resource Conservation District, the Napa County Flood Control and Water Conservation District

soldiers did when they reached land was to splurge on a great feast of fresh food—mutton, vegetables, and Cape wine—making themselves ill from overindulgence.37 The Cape was expensive and such celebrations could not last long, partic- ularly on meager pay, which in many cases had been advanced on interest. The great majority of soldiers would be moving on after a few weeks of recovery to garrisons in the east, but the Cape garrison was allowed to select the best men from the ships for itself. The soldiers were, on the whole, keen to be selected. According to Mentzel

distance. Intellectually inclined and fascinated by winemaking, Wallace seemed superior to Mary’s other suitors, among them a cheese- maker who worked for a company dairy, a locomotive engineer, and an ex- cowboy turned farmer.54 Wallace might have reminded her of her father, whom she idealized for his “fine intellectual attainments,” “rare conversa- tional powers,” and “remarkably retentive memory—a man to whom it was a pleasure to listen.”55 The couple, who shared an interest in botany, met at the home of friends at a time when men in the West outnumbered women fifteen

: Basic Books, 2001); and Susan Strasser, Charles McGovern, and Matthias Judt, eds., Getting and Spending: European and American Consumer Societies in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998). 8. Th omas Pinney, A History of Wine in America: From Prohibition to the Present (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), 224–52; James T. Lapsley, Bottled Poetry: Napa Winemaking fr om Prohibition to the Modern Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 181–209. For the general expansion of viticulture and winemaking across the

organization, 169, 475, 556 millet: cultivation, 6 9 - 70, 95-113; domestication, 68-69, 111; evolu- tion, 14, 68; importance, 66-68, 111; and Mo, 443; nomenclature, 29, 65-70, 96-97, 109, 110, 568; range, 15, 30,67, 223, 225, 572; religious significance, 105-106, 108; and wine-making, 98; vari- eties, 102-103, 104, 105-106. See also Panicum miliaceum; Setaria italica; Setaria viridis Min (dialect), 428, 439-440 Min-chia (language), 435 Min-hou FS&. See T'an-shih-shan mining, 237 n., 269 n., 283-284, 287-289 Minusinsk basin, 291 Miscanthus reed, 103 Mo

prepared for that work, since most of them came from the Pearl River Delta in Guang- dong Province, where a similar system had been built. California was typical in this respect. There are similar ethnic Italian, Greek, and Portuguese fishing and wine-making populations all over the Pacifi c and Atlantic—in Hawai’i, Australia, New Zealand, Peru, Chile, Argen- tina, and New England. Welsh and Chinese miners worked in the goldfi elds not only of California but also of Australia and New Zealand in the mid-nineteenth century. Japanese horticulturalists were critical