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–122; of fi gs, 16; in highlands, 63; location of within forest, 53–54; odor of, 54–57; of palms, 2, 15, plate 2; seasonality of, 6, 16, 52–53, 126; sugar content of, 2, 17; surface-area-to-volume ratio, 31; texture, 57; unripe, 16–17. See also Ripening syndrome Fungi, 3, 106, 122. See also Yeasts Fusel oils, 22 Genome-wide associations, 98 Gibbons, diet of, 7, 63 Glucose, 22. See also Sugars 152 / Index Gorillas: diet of, 7, 63, 125; in highlands, 7, 63 Grapes, 71. See also Wine; Wine-making Great apes, 61. See also Primates Group foraging, 53 Gun control, 130

fundamental chemical procedures of brewing, wine-making, and 8 / Introduction the intentional fermentation of alcoholic beverages (chapter 5). Although these events are impossible to date precisely, chemical analyses of pot- tery vessels indicate wine-making as early as 7000 BCE. Alcohol pro- duction rapidly became an important feature of human social life. Its relevance intensifi ed when improvements in crop productivity and the invention of distillation (probably fi rst in China before 200 CE, but only broadly disseminated by 700 CE) rendered high

incipient crafts of brewing, wine-making, and other modes of alcohol production were in full swing, in other words, as early civiliza- tions arose throughout the Old World. But unlike the fermentation of ripe fruits with abundant simple sugars, the use of grains such as barley, sorghum, millet, and rice requires an additional biochemical agent to break down complex carbohydrates into the smaller sugar molecules used by yeast cells. This process (technically known as saccharifi cation) can be accomplished through the use of specialized molds, as is done today for

we know of yeasts and alcohol production originated in the cultural processes of brewing and wine-making, as developed over millennia. Now, by using yeast to ferment mostly corn, wheat, and sugar cane, humans produce about thirty billion liters of alcohol every year. This amount represents the second-largest biotechnological prod- uct in the world, exceeded only by the harvest of both farmed and nat- ural timber. About a quarter of our eff orts in fermentation goes towards alcoholic beverages, and the remainder is used as industrial alcohol and motor fuel