were responsible for many of
the diseases that afflict humans and domestic animals, and was first to show how im-
munization by vaccination could prevent diseases like anthrax and rabies.
Winemaking was very important to the French economy in the 1800s. It was com-
mon knowledge that during aging, the inside surface of vats became coated with a
hard crust. When the compound that formed the crust was isolated and purified, it
produced tiny white crystals called tartaric acid, from the word tartaron that the Greeks
used to describe the same crust 2,000 years