philanthropic and social work; hospi-
tals, mechanics' institutes; working-
classeducation. Cambridge U.L. 33
EDWARDS, Lionel D. H. Reminiscences
of a Sporting Artist (1948). Work as
an artist; horses and hunts; England,
Ireland, Wales. 34
EDWARDS,Norman.Through a Young Man's
Eyes(l928).Sailor and theatrical jour-
nalist in 20's;Impressions and opini-
ons about education,people, the times
and religion. 35
(1858); Reminiscences of a Bengal Ci-
vilian (1866); Reminiscences of Forty
Three Years in India (1874). His long
career as a
R A L M E R I C ,
on Liberal defence policy, 71
F L O R E N C E , P . SARGANT, 1 4 7
FORSTER, W . E . , 328-329
on aims of [his] 1870 Education Act,
F o x , S I R L I O N E L ,
on prison reform, 282
F R A S E R , JAMES ( b i s h o p ) ,
on working-classeducation, 324-325
F R E U D , SIGMUND, 7 2 , 3 0 2
impact of, on medicine, 315
F R Y , S I R EDWARD, 2 6 0
F Y F E , D A V I D M A X W E L L . See under K I L -
MUIR (1st V i s c o u n t ) .
G A L T O N , S I R FRANCIS, 3 0 2
G E D D E S , PATRICK, 1 2 7 , 1 2 9
G E O R G E V , 7 1 - 7 2
G E O
, June 4, 1879.
16 Roney, 273-274; 318; 332.
THE SOCIALIST ACADEMY 163
attached)16 had made its appearance, it had been as a merger of the
Lassallean socialists with Marxians left over from the First Inter-
national. Perhaps the principal difference between these two groups
lay in their attitude toward trade unionism. For the Lassalleans, unions
appeared as bulwarks of the capitalist system, obstacles in the way of
socialist progress. The Marxians, on the contrary, viewed unionism
as a necessary stage of workingclasseducation and organization.
Roney, a trade
universities, owed their origin to the Extension Movement, notably Nottingham, Shef-
field, and Reading.
""Mansbridge, University Tutorial Classes-, Mansbridge, Adventure in Working-ClassEducation.
""Flexner, Universities, pp. 128— 147, where he pours scorn not only on the home study
courses but on the whole "service" function of the university.
' " S e e , inter alia, MacArthur , "Flexibility and Innovation," pp. 102-104.
4 8 / T H E H I S T O R I C A L P E R S P E C T I V E
and the political will to make productive and pleasurable use of it. And as
progress of workingclasseducation.
Have the intellectuals consistently led European labor into "left-
ist" ways? It is conceivable that on this point Perlman has been
the victim of personal experience. In the United States the intellec-
tual who has approached labor has been typically a radical who
has criticized it, from a leftist point of view, as too conservative,
as insufficiently ambitious, as showing only a limited interest in
wider issues. Perlman's discussion of the role of the intellectuals
in European labor20 gives the impression that he judges the Euro
Social Reform; and Helmut Kreutzer,
Die Boheme: Analyse und Dokumentation der intellektuellen Subkultur vom 19. ]ahr-
hundert bis zur Gegenwart (Stuttgart, 1971).
with new cultural forms, these individuals were of little real influence.
In the Freie Volksbühne, the Social Democrats' attempt at working-class
"education" through theatrical performances, the party wanted the au-
diences to get at least an indirect socialist message. As for formal ques-
tions, in an actual party debate on naturalism and aesthetic theory, at
Gotha in 1896, August Bebel
(1916). Church work as Bishop of Hon-
duras; negroes and banana trade; chap-
lain and Bishop of North & Central Eur-
ope during WW1. 672
BUSS,Henry. Eighty Years Experimce
(1893). Education at London Mechanics
Institute; influence of Birkbeck; his
medical training at Royal College Sur-
geons; practice; experiments with new
therapies;travels; marriage; valuable
for working-classeducation. 673
BUSSEY,Harry Findlater. Sixty Years
(1906). Journalist and Parliamentary
reporter;Hanchester; Manchester poli-
ticians, Disraeli, Gladstone; debates
concern us here. It is described by Simon, Studies, pp. 108-112 and analyzed at length by David New-
some, Godliness and Good Learning (London: Murray, 1961).
62. Quoted by Simon, Studies, p. 102.
63. G. Kitson Clark, The Making of Victorian England (London: Methuen, 1962), pp. 273-274.
64. On workingclasseducation, see Simon, Studies, pp. 121-162, and in particular, Mary Sturt,
The Education of the People (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967).
65. Simon, Studies, pp. 97-98.
66. Perkin, Origins, p. 301.
67. Simon, Studies, p. 246. For this