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; philanthropic and social work; hospi- tals, mechanics' institutes; working- class education. Cambridge U.L. 33 EDWARDS, Lionel D. H. Reminiscences of a Sporting Artist (1948). Work as an artist; horses and hunts; England, Ireland, Wales. 34 EDWARDS,Norman.Through a Young Man's Eyes(l928).Sailor and theatrical jour- nalist in 20's;Impressions and opini- ons about education,people, the times and religion. 35 EDWARDS.William.Personal Adventures (1858); Reminiscences of a Bengal Ci- vilian (1866); Reminiscences of Forty Three Years in India (1874). His long career as a

R A L M E R I C , on Liberal defence policy, 71 F L O R E N C E , P . SARGANT, 1 4 7 FORSTER, W . E . , 328-329 on aims of [his] 1870 Education Act, 325 F o x , S I R L I O N E L , on prison reform, 282 F R A S E R , JAMES ( b i s h o p ) , on working-class education, 324-325 F R E U D , SIGMUND, 7 2 , 3 0 2 impact of, on medicine, 315 F R Y , S I R EDWARD, 2 6 0 F Y F E , D A V I D M A X W E L L . See under K I L - MUIR (1st V i s c o u n t ) . G A L T O N , S I R FRANCIS, 3 0 2 G E D D E S , PATRICK, 1 2 7 , 1 2 9 G E O R G E V , 7 1 - 7 2 G E O

Debt, foreign, 26, 105, 123 n. See also Foreign investment Democratic Front, 106-107, 109> 1 1 1 12 , 1 53 - 155 , 204 Democratic party, 95, 1 16, 1 18 , n g , 175, 178. 181 Democràtico Nacional, Partido. See PADENA DESAL, 232-233. See also Communi- tarian society Devaluation, currency, 26 n, 94, 105, 122, 154 Development Corporation, Chilean. See CORFO Durin, Julio, 109, 1 1 1 Economically active population, 14— 17, 23, 34 n, 133. See also Working class Education, 29, 86; of industrial mana- gers, 4 0 - 1 1 ; and Catholic Church, 88, 89; of

, June 4, 1879. 16 Roney, 273-274; 318; 332. THE SOCIALIST ACADEMY 163 attached)16 had made its appearance, it had been as a merger of the Lassallean socialists with Marxians left over from the First Inter- national. Perhaps the principal difference between these two groups lay in their attitude toward trade unionism. For the Lassalleans, unions appeared as bulwarks of the capitalist system, obstacles in the way of socialist progress. The Marxians, on the contrary, viewed unionism as a necessary stage of working class education and organization. Roney, a trade

universities, owed their origin to the Extension Movement, notably Nottingham, Shef- field, and Reading. ""Mansbridge, University Tutorial Classes-, Mansbridge, Adventure in Working-Class Education. ""Flexner, Universities, pp. 128— 147, where he pours scorn not only on the home study courses but on the whole "service" function of the university. ' " S e e , inter alia, MacArthur , "Flexibility and Innovation," pp. 102-104. 4 8 / T H E H I S T O R I C A L P E R S P E C T I V E and the political will to make productive and pleasurable use of it. And as the Americans

progress of working class education. Have the intellectuals consistently led European labor into "left- ist" ways? It is conceivable that on this point Perlman has been the victim of personal experience. In the United States the intellec- tual who has approached labor has been typically a radical who has criticized it, from a leftist point of view, as too conservative, as insufficiently ambitious, as showing only a limited interest in wider issues. Perlman's discussion of the role of the intellectuals in European labor20 gives the impression that he judges the Euro

Social Reform; and Helmut Kreutzer, Die Boheme: Analyse und Dokumentation der intellektuellen Subkultur vom 19. ]ahr- hundert bis zur Gegenwart (Stuttgart, 1971). Traditions with new cultural forms, these individuals were of little real influence. In the Freie Volksbühne, the Social Democrats' attempt at working-class "education" through theatrical performances, the party wanted the au- diences to get at least an indirect socialist message. As for formal ques- tions, in an actual party debate on naturalism and aesthetic theory, at Gotha in 1896, August Bebel

(1916). Church work as Bishop of Hon- duras; negroes and banana trade; chap- lain and Bishop of North & Central Eur- ope during WW1. 672 BUSS,Henry. Eighty Years Experimce (1893). Education at London Mechanics Institute; influence of Birkbeck; his medical training at Royal College Sur- geons; practice; experiments with new therapies;travels; marriage; valuable for working-class education. 673 BUSSEY,Harry Findlater. Sixty Years (1906). Journalist and Parliamentary reporter;Hanchester; Manchester poli- ticians, Disraeli, Gladstone; debates in Parliament

need not concern us here. It is described by Simon, Studies, pp. 108-112 and analyzed at length by David New- some, Godliness and Good Learning (London: Murray, 1961). 62. Quoted by Simon, Studies, p. 102. 63. G. Kitson Clark, The Making of Victorian England (London: Methuen, 1962), pp. 273-274. 64. On working class education, see Simon, Studies, pp. 121-162, and in particular, Mary Sturt, The Education of the People (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967). 65. Simon, Studies, pp. 97-98. 66. Perkin, Origins, p. 301. 67. Simon, Studies, p. 246. For this