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C H A P T E R 8 The Family Economy and Working-Class Education THE DEMAND FOR EDUCATION: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Until now the analysis has taken the perspective mainly of those pressing for or providing working-class education: reformers, the ruling classes, the religious societies, community subscribers, and the state ad- ministration. This emphasis has concerned the supply side of education, with little consideration of its impact on its recipients or their interest in it. I have touched on the ways in which conditions of supply facilitated the spread of

British Working-Class Education in the Nineteenth Century

Social Paralysis and Social Change This page intentionally left blank A C E N T E N N I A L BOOK One hundred distinguished books published between 1990 and 1995 bear this special imprint of the University of California Press. We have chosen each Centennial Book as an exemplar of the Press's great publishing and bookmaking traditions as we enter our second century. U N I V E R S I T Y O F C A L I F O R N I A P R E S S Founded in 1893 This page intentionally left blank Social Paralysis and Social Change British Working-Class Education in the Nineteenth Century


Contents List of Tables Preface Chapter 1: Chapter 2: Chapter 3: Chapter 4: Chapter 5: Chapter 6: Chapter 7: Chapter 8: Chapter 9: Chapter 10: Notes Bibliography Index and Charts General Considerations Accounts of Educational Change Primordial Imagery in the Nineteenth Century Truce Points and Moments of Change (1) Truce Points and Moments of Change (2) The Case of Wales The Cases of Ireland and Scotland The Family Economy and Working- Class Education New Roles: Pupil-Teacher, Teacher, Inspector Conclusion ix xi 1 7 39 64 98 145 194 254 296 347 371 455 487 vii

C H A P T E R 3 Primordial Imagery in the Nineteenth Century In the preceding chapter I laid out several available accounts of educa- tional development and generated a synthetic perspective that is both different from and inclusive of these accounts. That perspective will guide my accounts and interpretations of working-class education in the nineteenth century. This chapter is also introductory, but in a different way. In it I record several primordial dimensions of British life that constitute "givens" within which Britain's educational system evolved. These

to interpret and explain that history. Most of these regard one set of determinants (for example, class or cultural domination) as more important than others. As often as not, the exponents of a preferred approach develop a polemic in favor of it and against others. In chapter 2,1 review the main approaches that have appeared in the writing of the history of British working-class education. In the same chapter, I develop an alternate, more inclusive approach that incorporates some aspects of each of them—for none of them is without merit—into a more comprehensive

formal government spon- sorship of or inclusion of particular religious doctrines or rituals in state-financed or state-administered schools. Faced with these diffi- culties, the government responded by creating a system that, in Robert Lowe's words, "offended no honest prejudices, but left every sect free to teach its religion as it understood it, and merely gave the assistance of the Government in that good work."49 This was the consolidation of the system of proliferation along primordial lines that was to characterize working-class education during the quarter

Maynooth controversy, 85, 238, 100- 101,109, 201, 202, 209-10, 211-12; and debate over Irish education, 210— 11; religious divisions over, 100—101 Mechanical solidarity, 360 Merthyr Tydfil, 267 Method of difference, 194-95 Methodist Episcopal Church (New York), 228 Methodists, 5; in Scotland, 238; in Wales, 150. See also Wesleyan Methodists Micro-macro relations, 4 Middle classes, 25, 144, 302; challenge of, to aristocratic society, 43; interest of, in education, 47; radicalism in, 9, 15, 25, 28, 78; and working-class education, 323, 379n.35 Middle East, 361 Middlesex

that sub-part, because it was the most important to those who made nineteenth-century educa- tional history, and because it constituted the most important foundation for contemporary English primary education. However, it should be kept in mind that English working-class education in the nineteenth cen- tury, to say nothing of English education as a whole, covered much more than that part of a part. In two centuries of concern, advocacy and counteradvocacy, reminis- cence, and scholarly study of English working-class education in the nineteenth century, many accounts

inability of that majority to provide day schools for its children. Most observers in the nineteenth century voiced the opinion that Wales was educationally backward. This view appeared especially in the 1840s, in the wake of episodes of social turmoil—the Rebecca Riots, the Newport uprising, and the appearance of strong Chartist sentiment in Wales. While those who commented on those disturbances acknowl- edged the legitimacy of many grievances underlying them,'8 the deficien- cies of the working classes' education were also mentioned as contribut- ing conditions. In the