at a time when the main
concern in the eyes of reformists was sectarian division rather than class tensions.
it is only at the beginning of the twentieth century that the concept of the masses
was first formulated, let alone that of the working classes. in other words, the rise
of mass politics propelled the theater to the front of mass education, and specifi-
cally working-classeducation. by 1910 the theater had become so inextricably as-
sociated with workers’ education that al-Hilāl could, in all seriousness, make the
analogy between the formation of arab