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chapter 7 African America My students and I at Cape Town worked hard, but I left realizing full well that they would eventually have to make the difference there, not me. The only difference I could make would be in Annapolis. When I returned there, I went to the Banneker-Douglass Museum to meet the director and the associate director, Barbara Jackson. I told them I wanted to work on archaeology with them. The director laughed at me. But Jackson said: “We want to know if we have archaeology; we want to hear about freedom—we’re tired of hearing about slavery.” And

Although the history of Africans in the Americas predates institutional slav- ery, it is marked by the brutal period of kidnapping and mass transport of millions of indigenous Africans during the transatlantic slave trade from approximately 1619 to 1850. Thus, the vast majority of contemporary African Americans are descendants of enslaved Africans. Human identity is usually defined in relation to familial, cultural, and genetic ancestry. How- ever, because enslavement has obliterated this history for the vast majority of African Americans it is even more critical

G&S Typesetters PDF proof W. E. B. Du Bois’s statement, penned in New York shortly after a visit to Los Angeles, exemplified a common perception among many black Angelenos that Los Angeles was a kind of racial paradise for African Americans. Jefferson L. Edmonds, editor of the black Los Angeles newspaper the Liberator, also expressed this sentiment in 1902 when he declared, “California is the greatest state for the Negro,” and in 1911 when he elaborated: Only a few years ago, the bulk of our present colored population came here from the South without any money

110 african american workers deplored their tenuous hold on urban industrial jobs, homes, social services, and justice before the law during the years of the Great Migration. Some considered moving back to the rural and small-town South. But most stayed and resolved to strengthen their footing in the labor force, neighborhoods, and politics of the city. Th ey forged new alliances with middle-class and elite blacks and their white allies on the one hand and with organized white labor and radical social justice and political movements on the other. Th ese

grandparents. In the years after the Civil War, African Americans began a long tran- sition from agricultural to industrial laborers. Factory jobs, which paid higher wages and were better insulated from the fluctuating market for agricultural products, were mostly in the North, and that’s where African Americans headed. From 1890 to 1910 the African American population in New York alone almost tripled. In just two decades roughly 200,000 African Americans emigrated from the South to the manufacturing cen- ters of the Northeast and the West Coast. By 1910 there were more than

159 chapter 7 Exclusion or Ambivalence? Explaining African Americans’ Boundary-Work It was the end of July 2010, and Arizona’s SB 1070 was making waves in the news and across Latino/a communities in the United States. Cristina grew more anxious by the day, wondering aloud how these kinds of laws might make her life more diffi cult, and the ominous mood perhaps foreshadowed her imminent arrest. But work was work, and like any other day, workers crowded around their raw material, chitchatting now and then to break up the disquieting monotony of ceaseless

motiva- tion that she brought to her environmental work. For Kyle environmental- ism certainly had to do with protecting the planet for current and future generations. But just as importantly she envisioned environmentalism as a movement that could bring respectability and opportunities to African Americans, and it was that vision that she transmitted at Faith in Place. Just as Kyle wanted to share positive news about her nephew at the staff meeting, she hoped that African American involvement with environmen- tal projects could lead to more positive stories and

1 “A Marvel of Paradox” Jazz and African American Modernity WRITING IN DOWN BEAT MAGAZINE IN 1939, Duke Ellington defined his musical project in response to critical discussions that di¤erentiated the “authentic” vernacular art of “jazz” from its commercial o¤shoot “swing”: “Our aim has always been the development of an authentic Ne- gro music, of which swing is only one element. We are not interested primarily in the playing of jazz or swing music, but in producing a gen- uine contribution from our race. Our music is always intended to be definitely and purely