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CHAPTER Vili MATTHEW ARNOLD AND AMERICAN CULTURE TOLD'S SUCCESS in America was immediate, far-reaching, and lasting. In the academic world in particular he has become a fixed star. It would not be an overstatement to say, as several nineteenth-century admirers of Arnold did say, that he had perhaps more readers in America than he had in England itself. For although a great deal of Arnold's impact as a critic in the English-speaking countries can be accounted for by the fact that he had offered the age precisely what it wanted and needed, there were

them college-educated, middle- to upper-middle-class Americans, tried new products, including flavored wines, roses, generic jug wines, and varietal wines, which were sold in supermarkets, specialty wine shops, and traditional liquor stores.4 Ernest and Julio Gallo led the way, helping to create a wine market and a wine industry virtually from scratch. Drinking wine gradually became socially acceptable and, as states and lo- F O U R Transforming Wine in American Culture 1 3 7 calities voted increasingly wet, legally acceptable as well. No longer was al- coholism

1 American Culture in East and West German Reconstruction In 1953 Karl Bednarik published a book, which was widely read and re- viewed in West Germany, on what he called a "new type" of young male workers. According to Bednarik these young men were characterized by two things above all: their love for westerns and other sensationalist films and their enthusiasm for jazz.1 That same year East German officials and newspapers drew a· similar image of male adolescents. In the aftermath of the June 1953, uprising in East Germany, they accused "Tangojunglinge" (Tango

12 Captivity and Slavery in Aboriginal North American Cultures The term "slave" or its equivalent in other European languages appears spo- radically in the ethnographic and historical literature on many aboriginal North American peoples, but slavery is not generally regarded as a significant trait in native North America. Ethnographers of indigenous North America have not used the term with much definitional precision or with much regard for the general literature on slavery. It has been common, however, to distinguish between hereditary and

2 THE LOOSELY BOUNDED FABRIC OF AMERICAN CULTURE The task of this chapter is to describe American culture as loosely bounded, to explore the differences between loose boundedness and the three cultural visions we have just exam- ined, to speculate about several main contributors to American loose boundedness, and to provide an historical "periodization" of loose boundedness. I will then illustrate loose boundedness by reference to American English and American architecture, two important forms of culture creation and transmission. To accomplish this

APPENDIX B The American Cultures Described in Cabeza de Vaca's Naufragios Native communities are described in the order assigned to them in Cabeza de Vaca's text.1 All the tribes and clans described here lived in different stages of the Paleoindian period.2 The chapters that relate to these tribes or clans are indicated when each culture is described. CALUSAS They were located in the parts of Florida to the south of Tampa, around Lake Okeechobee, and the present-day Everglades National Park. They also lived in the coastal areas of western Florida and