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Japanese Film Theory and Realism in a Global Frame

- 2 7 6 , 2 8 2 - 2 8 3 critique of surrealism, 5 7 - 5 8 , 2 6 9 - 2 7 1 , 272n . on commodity fetishism and reifica- tion, 1 5 7 , 1 5 9 , 1 6 5 , 1 7 0 , 233 , 2 3 8 - 2 3 9 , 2 6 0 on the "culture industry," 1 5 0 - 1 5 1 , 1 5 5 - 1 6 2 , 2 0 6 - 2 0 7 , 210, 213, 232 , 2 3 6 , 2 5 5 , 2 5 7 , 2 5 9 - 2 6 0 , 2 6 2 - 2 6 3 , 2 6 7 , 2 6 9 , 272n . , 2 7 7 , 283 defense of " a u t o n o m o u s " avant-garde art, 1 5 4 - 1 5 7 , 1 9 8 , 2 3 2 , 2 3 9 , 2 5 8 , 2 7 0 , 2 7 2 , 2 7 6 defense of the modern novel, 2 7 2 - 2 7 3 and expressionism, 3 3

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— thereby making obvious the fragility of human memory and the con- tingency of official history. He interpreted—he reinvented—his own career, which exists as a kind of art-world fiction anyway. For all their art-world infamy, the Happenings of the late fifties and early sixties were at tended/experienced by relatively few. But to the extent that they played into a counter-cultural need for a new (or perhaps ancient) communal, youthful performative space, what began as works of avant-garde art had become, by 1966, everything f rom anti-war protests and Bobby

in America. Since then the scene continues to change, with the modern aspect better, if hap- hazardly reported. Thus though this volume bears the mark of its date in a few re- spects, it is of value for its orderly documentation and completeness. And since what is continually needed is a systematic and sympathetic treatment of our chosen area, avant-garde art in America, we intend to document similarly the seasons of 1950-51 and 1951-52 in the second series of Modern Artists in America, in which other artists will appear in turn. Had it been our intention to

discourse formed around the machine aesthetic has attracted much attention from scholars of film and avant-garde art. Among those scholars is Malcolm Turvey, who coined the term “the revelationist tradition” to discuss how a group of major film theorists from the classical period—including Epstein, Vertov, Balázs, and Kracauer—dealt with cin- ema’s alleged ability to “uncover features of reality invisible to human vision.”8 While Turvey agrees that these theorists shared a growing skepticism about the alleged potency of human perception that was called into question

efficient market hypothesis, 103-4; information gathering on, 105-6; speculative, art as, 62, 208, 212 ateliers. See studio(s), artists' auctions and auction market, 3,161, 227-28, 251, 344; advances paid on consignments to, 227-28; in Amsterdam (i7th-cent), 6, 161, 216; of avant-garde art, 280, 345-46, 360; catalogues from, see catalogues, auction; in China, 352-53, 369, 370; of commodities, 157; of contemporary American art, 342, 363-64; in Germany (i8th-cent), 189-93; Land Art at, 344-46; in London (i7th/i8th cents.), 207-8, 210-11, 216; modern prints at

Introduction Despite the partial successes of modernization, revolt was brewing at the turn of the century and during the first decades thereafter. Consistent ideologies were being formulated, and social and ethnic groups organized with almost military discipline; vanguard parties emerged, and avant-garde art began to flourish in Central and Eastern Europe. All these movements presaged the forthcoming upheavals in society. The World War I years, and the ensuing misery, poverty, and hu- miliation, created a social and political environment in which these

museumgoing public, but also provoke questions about the challenges and benefi ts to museums working under the PST umbrella. More than a decade ago, the Getty Foundation and the Getty Research Institute realized that the history of avant-garde art in Southern California was in danger of being lost. Around 2003, archival materials were identifi ed, collected, catalogued, and made accessible for research. Oral histories were conducted, and a series of public programs brought the newly recovered On and Off the Hill in Los Angeles Making Connections and Making a Diff

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Jean Arp entitled “On Abstract Painting.”4 In 1937, the Japanese publisher Atelier issued Hasegawa’s Abusutorakuto ato (Abstract Art), the first book about abstraction in Japan, establishing Hasegawa as a lead- ing authority on avant-garde art. Also in 1937 he published “Avant-Garde Art and Eastern Classics,” an essay that juxtaposed discussion of Chinese classical paint- ing, the tea ceremony, and ikebana (the Japanese art of flower arranging) with modernist European architecture and art and that reads as a kind of manifesto.5 In another 1937 essay, “Avant

, literary, and theat- rical arts of the twentieth century. Since 1975, when Standish Lawder's touchstone study of Fernand Léger proposed an initial method for grappling with the eruption of filmic visuality into avant-garde art, scholars working in this area have continually renewed what is meant by the cinema's rela- tionship to the other arts in formal and aesthetic, as well as social and eco- nomic, terms.9 Whereas avant-garde filmmaking, cinephilia, popular culture, and iconography were all productively used early on to tackle questions concerning the cinema