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British Working-Class Education in the Nineteenth Century

B I B L I O G R A P H Y A Y L I F F E , John, Parergon Juris Canonici Anglicani: or, A Com- mentary by Way of Supplement to the Canons and Constitutions of the Church of England. London, 1726. B R Y S , J. , De Dispensatione in Jure Canonico. Lowain, 1925. B U R N , Richard, Ecclesiastical Law. 4 vols. 2nd ed. London, 1767. C A R D W E L L , Edward, Documentary Annals of the Church of England. 2 vols. Oxford, 1839. Synodalia, A Collection of Articles of Religion, Canons and Pro- ceedings of Convocations in the Province of Canterbury, from the Tear 1547

contain a broad outline of the development of canon law in Western Christendom down to the Refor- mation. I have deliberately omitted any account of the parallel development in the East. I have done this because my pre-occupation is with the Church of England and the Anglican Communion. Upon the Church of England Eastern canon law has had no effective impact, except for the in- clusion in the Penitentials of certain Eastern characteristics, perhaps under the influence of Archbishop Theodore. The Church of England developed with the development of Western

N S Strype, John Strype, Annals of the Reformation and Establishment Annals of Religion, and Other Various Occurrences in the Church of England During Queen Elizabeth's Happy Reign, 3 vols in 6 pts, Oxford 1824. Z.L., i Zurich Letters 1558-1579, ed. H. Robinson, PS, 1842. Z.L., ii Zurich Letters (Second Series) 1558-1602, PS , 1845.

in their opposition to the educational clauses and the An- glican Church. This unity proved momentary, however, as the religious picture was becoming more intense and complex in the few years lead- ing up to 1846. Within the Church of England, the division between the High Church party and the Evangelicals was greatly exacerbated by the conversion of John Newman and others to Roman Catholicism. This brought the Oxford Movement to an extreme conclusion and appar- ently confirmed the worst prejudices of its antagonists.' Newman's con- version fanned the anti

religion, the Established Church of England was dominant institutionally and numerically,' and it was closely affiliated with the ruling classes and fully incorporated into their politics of pa- tronage. The Dissenters included a diversity of groups at variance with Church of England ritual and theology in various ways. Among those, the Nonconformists were fragmented into multiple groupings—the "old" denominations of Presbyterians, Independents, and Baptists; and smaller groups such as the Unitarians and Quakers. The Catholics were a small minority in England and

Death of Elizabeth (pp. 194-195) that Mary, Elizabeth's half-sister and immediate predecessor on the throne, had used it in her title in the early months of her reign. She did this to avoid styling herself Supreme Head of the Church of England, as Henry VIII and Edward VI had done, for Mary, a devoted papalist, believed that that supremacy was vested in the pope by divine law. After the suppression of a revolt strengthened her position she omitted the "&c.," and shortly there- Statesmanship in an "6-c." 253 after royal ecclesiastical supremacy was explicitly

he has manifestly past the Bounds of Decency and 20 Respect: But so soon as he has got loose from disputing with Crown'd Heads, he shews himself in his pure Naturals, and is as busie in raking up the Ashes of their next Relations, as if they were no more of kin to the Crown, than the New Church of England is to the Old Reformation of their Great-Grand- fathers. But God forbid that I should think the whole Episcopal Clergy of this Nation to be of his Latitudinarian Stamp; many of them, as Learn'd as himself, are much more Moderate: And such, I am confident, will be

-77; Calvin on, 176 Anne (Queen of England), 270 Antichrist, 35, 97, 322, 344; controls England, 22; described in Old Testament, 23; in Protestant the- ory, 23; destruction of predicted, 28; and English Civil War, 31; and Church of England, sgf Anti-ministerial sentiment: appear- ance in smallpox controversy, 358-59 Antinomianism, 62-64. See a/so Mather, Richard. Antitypes, 106-8. See a/so Typol- ogy. Anxiety: in Puritanism 3-4, 7; mod- ern, 7; and Cotton Mather, 197-99 "Apologetical Preface, An" (by In- crease Mather), 119-20 Apparitions, 158 Arius, 131 Arminianism, 223

in the nineteenth century. With respect to polity, Wales had been officially coterminous with England politically and administratively for centuries. By contrast, Ireland had a dual system of administration, and Scotland enjoyed sig- nificant autonomy in many administrative respects.1 With respect to religion, Wales was also officially under the Church of England, though contemporaries occasionally spoke of the "Church in Wales" to indicate, perhaps, that the Anglican Church's position there was not quite the same as in England.2 Demographically, however, the