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the communist party T H E P O S I T I O N O F T H E C O M - munist party in Yugoslavia illustrated both the well-known dominant role of Communist parties in states where they have come to power and the peculiar nature of Yugoslav commu- nism.1 Organized on the Soviet pattern and headed by men steeped in the Soviet tradition, the Yugoslav Communists even in 1945 occupied a position similar to that of their comrades in the USSR, where, as Stalin said, "not a single important political or organizational question" was decided without directions from the

79 chapter 7 The Indian Communist Party We took the well-traveled route south from Lhasa to Chushul and then south to Phari and Yadong, the Tibetan town on the border with Sikkim [see map 3]. This time I didn’t need any letter or passport. We just crossed the Natöla Pass into Sikkim/India as if there were no border. Before we left Lhasa, I had gone to see Yuthok’s wife. She was very kind, as always, and gave me some dried meat and cheese for the trip. She also warned me to be careful when eating anything in Yadong and Sikkim, because there had been reports of

Il T H E I N D O N E S I A N C O M M U N I S T PARTY, 1920-1951 1. 1920-1948 The first socialist-oriented organization in Indonesia was the ISDV (the Indies' Social Democratic Association), founded in 1914 by four Dutch- men resident in Indonesia. By 1920 the more extreme leftists in the ISDV had established close contact with Indonesian leftists in the nationalist Sarekat Islam (Moslem Association). On May 23, 1920 the Indonesian Communist Party was established, with its headquarters at the Semarang branch of Sarekat Islam.1 During the next six and a

LESSON 2 On the (Chinese Communist) Party This selection consists of two portions — on democratic centralism and on the mass line of the party — from Liu Shao-ch'i's "Report on the Revision of the Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party" of May 14, 1945. The revision here refers to the revision in 1945 of the Constitution of the Chinese Communist party which had been adopted by the Sixth Congress in 1928. These two portions of Liu's report have been included in the Compilations of Documents for Socialist Education Courses (She-hui Chu-i Chiao-yu te

442 While the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP) was easily the most signifi cant po liti cal or ga ni za tion in Vietnam in late 1945, it did not control the civil admin- istration, most available fi rearms, or many of the self- styled Vidt Minh groups which had sprung up across the country. ICP members did enter state offi ces in late August and employ the colonial telegraph system to order whoever sat at the other end of the line to declare allegiance to the new Demo cratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV). Most provinces and districts readily compiled and

3 The Indochinese Communist Party and the Viet Minh O n 8 March 1945, hearing that Governor-General Decoux had been called to Saigon for consultations with the Japanese, and observing Imperial A r m y units preparing for possible combat, underground Communist Party activists in Hanoi sent an alert to the headquarters of the Party Central Committee, located in a clandestine " sa fe zone" (an toan khu) less than twenty kilometers north of the city. 1 Truong Chinh, the highly intelligent, if pedantic, secretary-general of the Party, decided to convene a

18 The Romanian Communist Party and the Nation T H E SECOND MAJOR AREA in which the Romanian elite under Ceau- sescu's leadership has been creating a synthesis of perspectives, com- mitments, and policies is in its appreciation of the nation as a po- litical unit. Under Ceausescu, there has been an ideological accep- tance of the nation as opposed to a simple political manipulation of it. Ideologically, there has been a continuous and conscious attempt to incorporate, recognize and control the idea of the nation. The present elite led by Ceausescu has added

Japanese Takeover of Manchuria and the Chinese Communist Party T H E BOLD MOVE OF THE JAPANESE KWANTUNG A R M Y to take effective control of all Manchuria in September 1931 was well calculated. Having been routed by the Soviet army only shortly before, the Young Marshal's Manchurian forces could not possibly present an effective resistance against the modern Japa- nese army that had been stationed on Manchurian soil for over a quarter of a century. The Kuomintang (KMT) government army had its hands full in southern China, being absorbed in campaigns to

The Chinese Communist Party among the Urban Workers T H E EARLY YEARS OF CHINESE C O M M U N I S T ACTIVI- ties in Manchuria are still shrouded in mystery. There are reports that the Fengtien branch of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was established between the first and second party congresses (July 1921 and July 1922), but no other information is available on that branch.1 On the other hand, Chang Kuo-t'ao, one of the prin- cipal CCP leaders of this era, cites Ch'en Wei-jen as a delegate from Harbin in northern Kirin Province at the party's Third Con