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solidarity to these principles. THE ALGIERS CHARTER ON AFRICAN CINEMA (Algeria, 1975) FEPACI (Fédération panafricaine des cinéastes) [Published in French as “Charte d’Alger du cinéma africain,” Afrique littéraire et artis- tique 35 (1975): 100–101. First published in English in Angela Marin, ed., African Films: The Context of Production (London: BFI, 1982), 5–6. Trans. Liz Heron.] Developing on the propositions put forth in the “Resolutions of Third World Film- makers Meeting” in Algiers in 1973, The “Algiers Charter” argues for the necessity of a militant, pan

Films: The Context of Production (London: BFI, 1982), 5–6. Trans. Liz Heron.] Developing on the propositions put forth in the “Resolutions of Third World Film- makers Meeting” in Algiers in 1973, The “Algiers Charter” argues for the necessity of a militant, pan-African cinema to countervail the dominant cinemas of Europe and the United States and the cultural and artistic domination that continues to ensue from this colonization. For a responsible, free and committed cinema. This charter was adopted at the Second Congress of the FEPACI (Fédération Panaf- ricaine

their films. Cinéma Africain et décolonisation (1976), by Ferid Boughedir, a doctoral dissertation (also written in the second decade of African cinema), deserves praise for its enthusiastic and historical positioning of African cinema. Besides delineating important historical aspects, Boughedir's theory of the "thematic and aesthetic concerns" of African cinema (which the author elaborates upon) is a valuable research source that is bound to influence future "up-to-date" comprehensive studies of this cinema. African Film: The Context of Production (1982), by

- dating powers and circulatory possibilities of the written text.4 But as I have insisted in this book, it is specious to proclaim the existence of simple historical continuities among the various cultural, technological, and eco- nomic contexts of production, distribution, and consumption of written texts. The ArtScroll story is distinct from older patterns of Jewish text- centrism in that the power exercised by the publisher’s various agents is cir- cumscribed by the par tic u lar opportunities, challenges, and threats to customary arrangements augured by the rise of

intercommunal activity, especially when texts do not explicitly engage one another or are produced centu- ries apart. When comparing the Talmud to other resources from Sasanian Iran, scholars must stress both similarities and diff erences between the texts’ contents, dates, contexts of production, transmission, and reception, and other factors. As I argued in chapter 2, there are numerous divergences between the Talmud and Middle Persian works that hamper our ability to draw direct parallels between them. Many Pahlavi works were produced in the ninth and tenth centuries

respect to various national contexts of production and appreciation, enhances its potential for illuminating the political, cultural, and logistical challenges faced by other filmmakers en- gaged in shaping inter-American cinema during World War II. Perhaps too hastily, these other works have been taken to be representative of that con- juncture, without closely examining what has been given up, what has been embraced (with or without clenched teeth), and what internally collides as a result of political and discursive accommodation. Thus, while the present

, Colin, et al. Godard: Images, Sounds, Politics. Bloomington: Indi- ana University Press, 1980. Magai, Lena. Dimba Nengue. Trenton: African World Press, Inc., 1988. Magubane, Bernard. "A Critical Look at Indices Used in the Study of Social Change in Colonial Africa." Current Anthropology 12 (October-December 1971):419—447. 350 Selected Bibliography Martin, Angela, ed. African Films: The Context of Production, dossier no. 6. London: British Film Institute, 1982. . "Four West African Filmmakers." Framework no. 11 (Autumn 1979): 16-21. Martin, Guy. "Fanon

, state formation, urbanization, market, and manufacture (see, e.g., Renfrew and Cherry 1986) are tightly associated with long- standing tendencies to emplot archaeological material in standardized metanar- ratives (here, of the expansion of certain kinds of polity associated with the city- state and as a component of an ancient Mediterranean ecol ogy; Morris 1995; Dyson 1998; Hamilakis 2006; even Bernal 1991). These interpretive and analytical categories for understanding the context of production of items such as Corinthian aryballoi are broad and blunt (see

- try, though Ravthon would publicly brush such concerns aside.78 The studio opened having signed labor contracts with the newly formed Sindicato de Traba- jadores de la Producción Cinematográfica, which had split off from the Sindicato de Trabajadores de la Industria Cinematográfica.79 Both of these groups pushed consistently for quotas that would guarantee screen time for domestic films and, more importantly in the context of production, for wage increases. In the late 1940s, labor demands soon made American producers think twice about making films in Mexico