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5 10 15 20 199 CORN-LAW RHYMES. 1. Corn-Law Rhymes. Third Edition. 8vo. London: 1831. 2. Love; a Poem. By the Author of Corn-Law Rhymes. Third Edition. 8vo. London: 1831. 3. The Village Patriarch; a Poem. By the Author of Corn-Law Rhymes. 12mo. London: 1831. Smelfungus Redivivus, throwing down his critical assaying-balance, some years ago, and taking leave of the Belles-Lettres function, expressed himself in this abrupt way: ‘The end having come, it is fit that we end. Poetry having ceased to be read, or published, or written, how can it continue to be

British Working-Class Education in the Nineteenth Century

T H E H E R O A S D I V I N I T Y v CONTENTS List of Illustrations vii Preface ix Chronology of Carlyle’s Life xi Introduction xiii Note on the Text xxix Illustrations xlv Essays on Literature Miss Baillie’s Metrical Legends. 3 Burns. 29 Voltaire. 75 Biography. 131 Boswell’s Life of Johnson. 145 Corn-Law Rhymes. 199 Diderot. 223 Sir Walter Scott. 277 Heintze’s Translation of Burns. 329 Preface to Emerson’s Essays. 335 Notes 341 Works Cited 621 Textual Apparatus 633 Emendations of the Copy-Text 635 Discussion of Editorial Decisions 671 Line-End Hyphens in

, the unfinished Wot- ton Reinfred. 1827 German Romance published in four volumes. 1828 Publishes “Burns” in the Edinburgh Review and articles on German literature both there and in the Foreign Review. 1829 Publishes “Voltaire” in the Foreign Review. 1830 Begins Sartor Resartus. 1832 Publishes “Biography” and “Boswell’s Life of Johnson” in Fraser's Magazine and “Corn-Law Rhymes” in the Edinburgh Review. 1833 Sartor Resartus is published serially in Fraser’s Magazine from November 1833 to August 1834. “Diderot” appears in the Foreign Quarterly Review. 1834 In

industrial depression from 1837 to 1843. It gained considerable notoriety and seemed a real menace to the authorities for several years. A large part of Chartist ranks were drawn from members of trade societies.21 But it also had support from middle- class radicals (Rowe, 1967, 85). e Chartist movement existed simultaneously with, and was in direct rivalry with, the free-trade movement of the Anti–Corn Law League. Halévy (1947, 9) raises the specter of a potential for “civil war.” Briggs (1959, 312) speaks of the two movements as representing “a contrast between

would alleviate at least some of the insecurity associated with middle-class entrepreneurship. Middling (by now middle-class) politics would come into its own, not just in the form of agitation over the corn laws and the expansion of the franchise, but in the campaign to abolish the slave trade and in feminist efforts to improve women's education and ensure more property rights for wives. In any society there is a wide gulf between prescription and practice. Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century middling family life was fraught with internal tension. Women had


famous and stalwart defenders. Carlyle, on the other hand, argues that Johnson’s greatness transcends his Toryism, that Johnson is great in spite of his Tory affiliation, however limiting such an affiliation might be. Another sign of Carlyle’s growing independence was that he began propos- ing his own topics. He had sought a commission from the Edinburgh Review to review Boswell’s Life, and, when this offer was declined (in preference to Macaulay), he obtained one from Fraser’s Magazine. In proposing a review of the relatively obscure “Corn-Law Poet” (Ebenezer

'interest', of Church establishment, of barriers to free trade and to cheap, efficient administration. He fully supported the electoral reform of 1832. But Glasgow, a great industrial city on the brink of the 1837 trade slump and of Chartism, already given over to Anti-Corn Law agitation, was a new world far removed both from India and from the political arenas Bentinck had known—from Westminster, from the comfortable merchant oligarchy of King's Lynn, above all from the rule of ducal families and gentry in Nottinghamshire. In the Britain of the 1830s Glasgow was

161 abstraction, forms of, 7, 13–16, 51–53, 62, 72, 76, 78, 88, 120, 128, 130–33 Acland, Richard, 89 Act of Union (Ireland), 30, 52 Act of Union (Scotland), 14, 27, 52, 55, 112, 116 Admiralty Arch, 72 Admiralty Offi ce, 70 Africa, 25, 43, 67, 68, 73, 74, 102, agricultural revolution, 4 air control, 67 Alsanger, Thomas, 109 Amalgamated Society of Engineers, 80 American Association for Public Opinion Research, 88–9 Amsterdam, 108 anonymity, 4, 14, 19, 38, 40, 43, 48, 49, 50, 51, 60–61, 62, 78, 90, 94, 95, 101, 102, 106, 123, 128, 146 Anti-Corn Law Circular