1. Corn-Law Rhymes. Third Edition. 8vo. London: 1831.
2. Love; a Poem. By the Author of Corn-Law Rhymes. Third Edition. 8vo.
3. The Village Patriarch; a Poem. By the Author of Corn-Law Rhymes. 12mo.
Smelfungus Redivivus, throwing down his critical assaying-balance, some
years ago, and taking leave of the Belles-Lettres function, expressed himself
in this abrupt way: ‘The end having come, it is fit that we end. Poetry having
ceased to be read, or published, or written, how can it continue to be
T H E H E R O A S D I V I N I T Y v
List of Illustrations vii
Chronology of Carlyle’s Life xi
Note on the Text xxix
Essays on Literature
Miss Baillie’s Metrical Legends. 3
Boswell’s Life of Johnson. 145
Corn-Law Rhymes. 199
Sir Walter Scott. 277
Heintze’s Translation of Burns. 329
Preface to Emerson’s Essays. 335
Works Cited 621
Textual Apparatus 633
Emendations of the Copy-Text 635
Discussion of Editorial Decisions 671
Line-End Hyphens in
, the unfinished Wot-
1827 German Romance published in four volumes.
1828 Publishes “Burns” in the Edinburgh Review and articles on
German literature both there and in the Foreign Review.
1829 Publishes “Voltaire” in the Foreign Review.
1830 Begins Sartor Resartus.
1832 Publishes “Biography” and “Boswell’s Life of Johnson” in Fraser's
Magazine and “Corn-Law Rhymes” in the Edinburgh Review.
1833 Sartor Resartus is published serially in Fraser’s Magazine from
November 1833 to August 1834. “Diderot” appears in the Foreign
depression from 1837 to 1843. It gained considerable notoriety and seemed a real
menace to the authorities for several years. A large part of Chartist ranks were
drawn from members of trade societies.21 But it also had support from middle-
class radicals (Rowe, 1967, 85).
e Chartist movement existed simultaneously
with, and was in direct rivalry with, the free-trade movement of the Anti–CornLaw League. Halévy (1947, 9) raises the specter of a potential for “civil war.” Briggs
(1959, 312) speaks of the two movements as representing “a contrast between
would alleviate at least some of the
insecurity associated with middle-class entrepreneurship. Middling (by
now middle-class) politics would come into its own, not just in the form of
agitation over the cornlaws and the expansion of the franchise, but in
the campaign to abolish the slave trade and in feminist efforts to improve
women's education and ensure more property rights for wives.
In any society there is a wide gulf between prescription and practice.
Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century middling family life was fraught with
internal tension. Women had
famous and stalwart defenders. Carlyle, on the other
hand, argues that Johnson’s greatness transcends his Toryism, that Johnson is
great in spite of his Tory affiliation, however limiting such an affiliation might be.
Another sign of Carlyle’s growing independence was that he began propos-
ing his own topics. He had sought a commission from the Edinburgh Review
to review Boswell’s Life, and, when this offer was declined (in preference to
Macaulay), he obtained one from Fraser’s Magazine. In proposing a review of the
relatively obscure “Corn-Law Poet” (Ebenezer
of Church establishment, of barriers to free trade and to cheap,
efficient administration. He fully supported the electoral reform of
1832. But Glasgow, a great industrial city on the brink of the 1837
trade slump and of Chartism, already given over to Anti-CornLaw
agitation, was a new world far removed both from India and from the
political arenas Bentinck had known—from Westminster, from the
comfortable merchant oligarchy of King's Lynn, above all from the
rule of ducal families and gentry in Nottinghamshire. In the Britain
of the 1830s Glasgow was