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network television is simply bad—inert, derivative, cardboard—because no one with clout cares enough to make it otherwise. It is good enough for its purposes. . . . In headlong pursuit of the logic of safety, the networks ordinarily intervene at every step of the 2. Art, Commerce, and Creative Autonomy 56 / Art, Commerce, and Creative Autonomy development process. . . . More often than not, commerce defeats not only art but commerce itself.”2 Writing three decades later, when the processes of technological and industrial convergence had already had a

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Contents Acknowledgments ix Abbreviations xi Foreword by Sir Patrick Stewart xiii introduction: “it’s a television show” 1 1. star trek and american television history 17 2. art, commerce, and creative autonomy 55 3. the craft-workshop mode of production 86 4. actors: the public face of star trek 106 5. world building 126 6. character building 149 conclusion: “it’s not a television show” 185 Appendix: List of Interviewees Quoted 193 Notes 195 References 221 Index 231 This page intentionally left blank

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. Conclusions 194 Poetry and the Social Novel 194 Didacticism and Creative Autonomy 211 Radicalism and Pessimism 214 Money and the Novel Form 2 1 8 Index 223 I n a community regulated only by the laws of supply, but protected from open violence, the persons who become rich are, generally speaking, industrious, resolute, proud, covet- ous, prompt, methodical, sensible, unimaginative, insensitive, and ig- norant. The persons who remain poor are the entirely foolish, the en- tirely wise, the idle, the reckless, the humble, the thoughtful, the dull, the imaginative

decisions in the crea- tive process of producing media,”3 the actors had less creative autonomy than many of their colleagues. The actors garnered the lion’s share of public recognition, but behind the scenes they were often acted upon. While, as chapter 2 argued, all the Star Trek workers’ space for independent decision making depended upon relationships with the studio and the network, and their position in the production hierarchy, the actors’ creative autonomy most directly depended upon the combined inputs of all the above- and below-the-line workers who

creative autonomy; rather, as Deuze says, “people do things together and in doing so continuously struggle for symbolic power within their respective fields of work.”3 This chapter investi- gates the patterned behaviors, the doing together, and the struggling of the Star Trek production process—where, in Deuze’s words, a “combination of specific technical and organizational arrangements” were “shaped by the generally idiosyncratic habits of individual media practitioners.”4 The necessary relationship between art and commerce requires a mode of production that

, 142, 143 Battlestar Galactica, 37, 81–82, 192 Beauty and the Beast, 192 Belfast Cathedral Quarter Arts Festival, 184 Beltrane, Robert, 119, 120 Berman, Rick, 12, 38–40, 53, 54, 66, 81, 107; and actors, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119; and apprenticeships, 91; and budgets, 74, 102; and control, 92–93, 105; and creative autonomy, 56, 60, 62, 78–79; and design, 65; and Roddenberry, 83, 85; and setting, 79–80; and team working, 89, 90, 187; and writers, 95, 98 “Best of Both Worlds” episode, 97, 131, 171, 173–74 Big Bang Theory, The, 1 “Big Goodbye, The” episode, 159

Industry Perspective on Entertainment Media,” Theory, Culture & Society 25, nos. 7–8 (2008): 74. 181. Ibid., 74–75. 2. art, commerce, and creative autonomy 1. Susan Christopherson, “Beyond the Self-Expressive Creative Worker: An Industry Perspective on Entertainment Media,” Theory, Culture & Society 25, nos. 7–8 (2008): 74. 2. Todd Gitlin, Inside Prime Time (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985), 83–85. Notes / 207 3. Mark Deuze, Media Work (London: Polity, 2007), 147. 4. Ibid., 93. 5. John Thornton Caldwell, “Cultures of Production: Studying Industry’s Deep Texts

flows as a kind of ground swell below them; but they must also be examined in and for themselves. The elucidation of what I take to be Dick- ens' unifying ideas, combined with the appreciation of their per- sonal manifestations, is clearly a very difficult task, and so I THE MOB AND SOCIETY 87 wish to clarify my approach by looking briefly at what I think is an obvious example of the successful fusion of didacticism and creative autonomy organized around the theme of money. Many earlier discussions of Dickens seem to assume that he was interested only in the

, 170, 185; imperialism and, 127; in youth politics, 99–102, 104 – 6, 112–13, 116 Corradini, Enrico, 18 Corrente di vita giovanile ( journal), 167– 68, 194, 198, 204 Corriere della sera (newspaper), 24, 152 Corriere padano (newspaper), 51, 57, 194, 228n9 creative autonomy: illusion of, 47; rhetoric of, 9, 20 –21, 23 –24, 62– 63 Crémieux, Benjamin, 162, 258n72 Critica fascista ( journal), 22, 25, 30, 35, 49, 61, 62, 64, 78, 94, 108, 110, 112, 117, 118, 173 –74, 182, 232n68 Croce, Benedetto, 21, 47, 50, 65, 80, 206, 219n14 Croix de Feu, 4 culture: as agent of moral