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years to my physical life because it got me so agitated, along with a lot of other things, that I took the weight off. If you learn anything in this life, you ought to learn some things about yourself and I’m sure I’ve learned some things in adversity that I would never have learned in the flush of victory.”1 129 N I N E Backstabbing Democrats Still his image needed work. “Frankly his image is troublesome in this district,” a Democratic activist, Cheryl Peterson, reported from rural and suburban Sonoma County. “Democratic incumbents are frightened about being tied to

4. The Conservative Democrat in Templeton The moment the idea is admitted into so- ciety that property is not as sacred as the laws of God, and that there is not a force of law and public justice to protect it, anarchy and tyranny commence. JOHN ADAMS, A Defence of the Constitutions of Gov- ernment T H E F A C T O R S that led Cooper to become so critical of America upon his return are varied and interwoven. Ex- posure to European culture surely made him more con- scious of American provincialism and American medi- ocrity. On the other hand, the America

TWO Democrats in a Budget Trap In 1980 the Democratic party lost control of the American government. The Democrats' defeat was most evident in the election. Incumbent Jimmy Carter got only 41 percent of the vote, with 51 percent going to Republican Ronald Reagan and 7 percent to independent John Ander- son. In the House of Representatives, the Democratic majority was slashed by thirty-three seats, a change that, considering conservative southerners, made the Democratic majority fade away. Most dramati- cally, Democrats lost twelve Senate seats; their once

I FOREIGN POLICY SPLITS TWO DEMOCRATS Harry S. Truman assumed the presidency on April 12, 1945, under tragic circumstances. Franklin Roosevelt, the nation's head of state since 1932, was dead, and the "man from Mis- souri" was the new leader. A grieved country held out its hand to this untried president and it seemed that he would need all the help that he could get. Speaking to a group of Senate pages and reporters on the day following his oath of office, Truman declared, "Boys . . . if you ever pray, pray for me now. I don't know whether you fellows

3. The American Democrat in Europe Americans are, as Americans, the most self-conscious people in the world, and the most addicted to the belief that the other nations of the earth are in a con- spiracy to undervalue them. They are conscious of being the youngest of the great nations, of not being of the Euro- pean family, of being placed on the cir- cumference of the circle of civilization rather than at the centre, of the experi- mental element not having as yet entirely dropped out of their great political undertaking. HENRY JAMES, Hawthorne IN 1 8

55 4 White Workers, New Democrats, and Affirmative Action Written originally in 1994, as President William Jefferson Clinton abstained from defending affirmative action in the campaign over Propo- sition 209 in California, this chapter will strike many readers as counter- intuitive, if not flatly wrong. During his second term, President Clinton so attracted loyal African American support, most critically in the crisis surrounding his impeachment, that an account of his failures on a cen- tral question of racial justice seems carping. If Clinton has claimed

Chapter III Republicans or Democrats? Politics in a Working-Class Suburb In the spring of 1957, Newsweek was only repeating what seemed to be a well-worn truth when it noted that: "When a city dweller packs up and moves his family to the suburbs, he usually acquires a mortgage, a power lawn mower, and a backyard grill. Often, although a lifelong Democrat, he also starts voting Repu- blican." 1 Apparently this trend was first seriously noticed after the 1952 election, when, of the 67 counties included by the Census Bureau in its classification of the 20

8. The Rise of the Republican Right and the New Democrats 133 The rightward turn in party politics, under way since the 1970s, was deeply shaped by race, class, and gender politics. Under pressure from corporate leaders, politicians of both parties, but especially Republicans, embraced a neoliberal economic agenda that called for minimal governmental interfer- ence with labor markets and economic transactions. At the same time, declining participation of working-class voters and the absence of a strong progressive movement reduced political pressure to protect

punitive course and detained Salomón on the base without notifying his family, a lawyer, or the base union. Rumors spread when workers realized that Salomón had been thrown in jail with- out trial or inquiry. José Repilado Pérez, a delegate of the base workers’ 61 2 “We Are Real Democrats” Legal Debates and Cold War Unionism before Castro, 1940–1954 union, described the crisis in almost biblical language: “Lorenzo Salomón disappeared as if he had been swallowed by the earth.”2 On release two weeks later, Salomón claimed that he had been wrong- fully accused, beaten, and