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in animals and plants. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. DIVERSITY MEASURES ANNE CHAO National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan LOU JOST Baños, Ecuador Diversity is a measure of the compositional complexity of an assemblage. One of the fundamental parameters de- scribing ecosystems, it plays a central role in community ecology and conservation biology. Widespread concern about the impact of human activities on ecosystems has made the measurement of diversity an increasingly im- portant topic in recent years. TRADITIONAL DIVERSITY MEASURES The simplest and still

N I N E T E E N Diversity 167 Figure 19. Rangeland biodiversity. Drawing by Casey Landrum. Truett, Grass 7/31/09 12:37 PM Page 167 Encountering diversity in nature can titillate the senses but at the same time generate anxiety. It’s like owning a lot of stuff or having too many people or pets in the house. Diversity offers grand prospect, interesting opportunity, but at the same time can challenge one’s sense of control. Birdwatchers spend a lot of time seeking out diversity, lawnkeepers and farmers a lot of money getting rid of it. Conserving biodiversity

in Grass

C H A P T E R V Diversity Angel shark. Hagfish. Sarcastic fringehead. Warmouth. Whitefish. Grayling. Cardinal tetra. Wobbegong. Peacock flounder. Hogchoker. Zebrafish. The colorful names we give to fish reflect their enormous diversity. There are over 21,000 species of fish, with new species being described on a regular basis. They occur in an amazing array of habitats from high mountain streams to the depths of the ocean, with a diversity of adaptations to match their habitats. This chapter, and the ones that follow, can only give you a glimpse of this

in Fish

, most of these activities are localized. Animal Diversity San Diego County is considered one of the world's biodiversity hot spots—a region that has been characterized by scientists as having a wide variety of plants and animals, many endemic, liv- ing in close proximity. Thousands of insects and invertebrates, both terrestrial and water dwelling, are found here, including about 200 species of dragonflies and butterflies. Over 600 types of freshwater and saltwater fish are native to California, and many of these live in San Diego County. Birds are well

Food and Globalization in Modern America

70 Diversity: Not There Yet April 2003 In the weeks leading up to the Supreme Court’s hearing on affi rmative action, the public University of California system was depicted alternately as a dramatic success or a dismal fail- ure in its efforts to enroll Latino and African American stu- dents after the elimination of race and ethnicity as factors in student admissions.1 The truth lies somewhere in between. But as a university president who took offi ce just after the decision in California to disallow consideration of race and ethnicity in University ad

as a biology professor, whether I’d become a nightclub waitress, whether I’d even stay alive. I couldn’t make long-term plans. Still, I found my mind leaping from one question to another: What’s 1 INTRODUCTION Diversity Denied the real story about diversity in gender and sexuality? How much diver- sity exists in other vertebrate species? How does diversity evolve in the animal kingdom? And how does diversity develop as individuals grow up: what role do genes, hormones, and brain cells play? And what about diversity in other cultures and historical periods, from

67 c h a p t e r 3 Dismantling Diversity In 1993, two San Francisco Bay Area academics—Glynn Custred and Thomas Wood—introduced a ballot initiative that in one vote promised to eliminate aYrmative action throughout the state of California. Cus- tred and Wood viewed aYrmative action as both unfair and contrary to their own interests. Custred was a white anthropology professor at Cal- ifornia State University at Hayward who was upset by, among other things, the hiring and Wring practices employed by his university to cre- ate and maintain racial diversity on the

geologically distinctive. To them it is all about the terroir in the former bed of the Ngaruroro River. “No politics, no bullshit,” said Steve Smith, a wine- maker and partner at Craggy Range, whose first vintage was in 2001. “Either you’re in or you’re out.”1 This style of governance has more in common with an apartment co-op than it does with a French appellation. CHAPTER 7 Celebrating Diversity 145 The winemakers who put Gimblett Gravels on their wine labels are in contravention of no law, domestic or foreign, as it is not a place name, but rather a trademark. As a result

(NGOs) and the news media. One product of that meeting was The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity ( http:// www .cbd .int/ con vention/ text/ ), often referred to as the Biodiversity Treaty. Recurring themes of the conference and the Convention were that countries needed to conserve their biological diversity and use their biological resources in a sustainable manner. At a meeting in April 2002, the Conference of the Parties (the decision- making body of the Convention) set as a goal a sig- nifi cant reduction in the rate of loss of